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Glossary

Audio

AES/EBU

A digital audio standard established by the Audio Engineering Society and the European Broadcasting Union. The signal is serial digital, comprising two channels. The basic sampling resolution is 20 bit, sampled at frequencies between 32 kHz and 48 kHz (44.1 kHz is the most common). Two sets of 4 bits of information are included for other data transmission (one set can be added to the 20 bit of audio, for a 24 bit system). Additional bits are transmitted as well, and the transmitted frames of the interwoven audio channels are grouped to frame blocks.
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amplify

Increase the audio volume.
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attenuate

To reduce audio strength or volume.
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Audio

Pertaining to frequencies of a normally audible sound wave (15 to 20000Hz). Audio has been, until recently, a very neglected side of video recording and processing. Very often, during videotape duplication and enhancement, the quality of the soundtrack is detrimentally affected. Several special soundtrack enhancement devices and integrated audio and video enhancers* have lately appeared on the market (see Audio Equalization and Audio Exciter). New VCRs and TV systems employ Hi-Fi quality sound tracks, and are sometimes equipped with decoders for DOLBY SURROUND*, AC-3* or other three-dimensional sound encoding devices.
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Audio Bandwidth

The range of audio frequencies over which an amplifier or receiver will respond and provide useful output. The higher the audio bandwidth the better the sound quality. The highest practical frequency for the human ear is 20 kHz. An audio amplifier delivering a flat response of up to 20 kHz will faithfully reproduce the audio soundtrack of a video recording.
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Audio Dub

A feature used in video editing* to add, replace, or mix audio signals with the original sound track without effecting the picture (video portion). Special controls and connectors are available for this purpose on some quality video recorders. When dubbing is not available on, or is limited by, the video recorder, audio dubbing can be performed externally using audio/video processors.
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Audio Editing

Combining audio material of different origin into one continuous piece. For example, when a sound track is added to videotape, various background sounds, such as music, may be supplemented in order to highlight particular scenes in a movie. Audio correction can also be done during video editing. Audio equalization*, audio noise reduction*, Dolby* encoding, etc. are functions available on many quality editors.
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Audio Equalization

An audio process, hardware or software based, which breaks down the audio spectrum into several frequency bands to compensate for changes in audio frequency-dependent levels, allowing the user to control (boost or cut) each frequency segment individually. The main use of audio equalizers is to compensate for inadequate acoustics in the room where the sound is being played. Another very important use for audio equalization is to revitalize the playback* characteristics of low quality tapes and poor recordings in order to recreate the original sound.
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Audio Exciter

An audio circuit available in high quality audio equipment, designed to recreate the harmonic content of an audio signal which was lost during video or audio tape duplication. Using the audio exciter to recreate the lost harmonic content, generates a sparkling audio sound. This effect is different from normal high frequency boosting which generates noise* and hiss* while improving the frequency response of the audio signal. Audio exciting is available only on special sound correction devices.
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Audio Mixer Window

A window used to dynamically monitor and control the volume level and pan/balance of multiple audio tracks on the Timeline to combine them into a final program.
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Audio Mixing

The mixing or blending of two or more audio signals to generate a new signal, which is often used for audio dubbing*. Audio mixing requires that all audio channels involved are amplified and equalized to the same level. To mix a line level input with a microphone signal, the microphone signal must be pre-amplified to bring it up to a level identical to that of the line signal. In video processing, audio mixing is used for the insertion of background music behind the dialogue. It is also employed in the creation of cross fading* between two audio sources. It produces a drift in the level of the received signals until one fades out and the second becomes dominant.
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Audio Noise

A hiss* (random high frequency noise) or a hum (low frequency noise from the power-line frequency and its harmonics or ground loops) heard on audio or video equipment. It is the result of poor signal handling or of discrepancies between audio pickup devices and media. Audio noise reduction* circuitry eliminates or reduces audio noise.
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Audio Waveform

A graphical representation of an audio clip, helping to visualize the sound in the clip by showing the signal levels. Editors can show a waveform in audio tracks in the Timeline and in a separate Clip window when you open an audio clip.
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Audio-follow-video Switcher

During video production, the video signal is normally accompanied by an audio signal. Sometimes, during the switching or processing of signals, the audio signal is separated from the video signal. In such a case, a complex situation arises whereby each signal must be processed, mixed and enhanced separately. Audio-follow-video is a process which overcomes this difficulty and both signals, audio and video, are switched from an audio-video source to an audio-video acceptor simultaneously (not in separate passes).
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Audio-Video

A term often used when discussing a channel on a TV receiver or on video equipment, which has been especially designed to accept VCR audio-video signals. This channel automatically activates special circuitry within the TV set or monitor to prevent picture distortion* and skewing*. It is also used for audio-video processors, which handle both types of signals.
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Bandpass effects

Audio effects designed to remove specific frequencies from an audio clip (manifested as hisses, whines, and hums).
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Cardioid

A type of microphone with a sound pick-up characteristic and which resembles a heart-shaped sphere. The cardioid microphone is used in applications where a specific pick-up characteristic is needed.
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Composite Audio

A standard analog audio which utilizes RCA jacks for interconnection of components.
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DAB

Digital Audio Broadcasting. A system under development in Europe and the US, which will allow broadcasting of CD quality audio.
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DAT

Digital Audio Tape. An audio cassette tape format that typically records 2 channels of 16-bit 48kHz or 44.1kHz digital audio on a 3.8mm wide magnetic tape.
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dB

Decibel. A logarithmic ratio measuring signal amplitude and power, allowing easy evaluation of very large or very small ratios.
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Decibel (dB)

A unit of measurement expressing ratios using logarithmic scales. Usually used as a measurement of audio volume level.
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delay

An audio effect that provides an echo of a sound after a specified time period.
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Dolby (noise Reduction)

A technique developed by Dolby(tm) Laboratories which improves the signal-to-noise ratio* of a recording by raising the level of specific frequencies in quiet passages before recording, and lowering them to their original levels during playback* (a compression- expansion process). This automatically reduces any noise* that was introduced as a result of the recording or playback process. There are several schemes related to DOLBY noise reduction, using different frequency bands of operation.
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Dolby (surround)

An audio system developed by Dolby(tm) Laboratories for encoding audio surround channels within a videocassette or for movie theatre use. The analog system adds three embedded additional channels - center and delayed back right and left. The modern AC-3 system has all the surround channels separate, digitally encoded. In both cases a special decoder is needed to retrieve the additional audio channels.
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Dolby AC-3

A digital audio compression technique designed for delivery of discreete multichannel digital surround sound. AC-3 supports from 1 to 6 audio channels (5.1 surround) at various bitrates. Designed as a distribution format, it is not directly editable. Chosen as the audio standard for DTV broadcasting.
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Dolby Digital

This is a digital surround sound technology used in movie theaters and upscale home theater systems that enhances audio. Home theater components with this technology work in conjunction with a "8.1-speaker" system (Eight speakers plus a low-frequency subwoofer) to produce true-to-life audio that draws the listener into the onscreen action.
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Dolby E

A digital audio compression technique designed for the production of discreete multichannel digital surround sound and metadata. Dolby E supports up to 8 channels in any combination including 8 Mono, 4 Stereo, and 5.1 plus stereo. Designed as a production format, it is editable on frame boundaries and maintains quality through multiple decode/encode cycles.
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Dolby Pro-Logic

More advanced form of Dolby Surround that not only recovers the surround information from the encoded program material, but also adds a center channel to keep dialogue and center effects firmly positioned. Provides a wider listening/viewing area and provides better channel separation.
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Dolby Surround

First generation home theater format that recovers surround information from encoded program material and feeds it to a pair of surround speakers placed up on the side walls adjacent to the listening area. Outputs three channels: left, right, and surround (usually split into 2 rear speakers).
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DTS

Digital Theater Systems sound. Discrete 8.1 channel surround system similar but not the same as Dolby Digital. Dolby Digital is the DTV standard, but DTS competes with it on DVD and in the movie theaters.
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dynamic range

The difference between the softest and loudest sounds. Decrease to compress the range and reduce noise, or expand to emphasize volume differences.
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Equalize

To adjust the tonal quality of an audio clip. As with graphic equalizers found in home or auto audio equipment, an equalize effect can to boost or cut the original signal at different frequency bands.
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Gain

Overall audio output volume. Increase gain to amplify a clip, or decrease gain to attenuate a clip, making it quieter.
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Gang

To adjust multiple tracks at the same time, as in the Audio Mixer window.
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HZ

Hertz. A measurement used for audio sampling rate, as in the number of audio samples per second. See also sample rate.
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LCRS

Denotes an audio system that has 4 full range channels (Left, Center, Right, Surround). This signal is often encoded in Dolby Pro-Logic for distribution
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Line Level

An analog audio connection intended for connecting interconnecting audio equipment, and without the amplification required to connect to speakers. See also Mic.
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MADI

Multichannel Audio Digital Interface, also known as AES-10 standard. Allows interconnection of two devices to transmit up to 56 channels of digital audio (max. word length 24 bits) with a single coaxial cable or via optical link. Standard interface to digital multitrack machines and mixing consoles.
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Measurement Of Audio Level

In the recording process, audio* level is a critical factor. If is too high, audio distortion* occurs. If it is too low, the signal-to-noise ratio* deteriorates. Thus precise measurement of audio level is essential during recording. A mechanical VU-meter or an electronic LED bar graph meter measures audio level. One of the most effective and fastest methods employs LEDs which change color according to signal level. When the audio level is too high or too low the lamp changes from green to red signaling that a problem has arisen.
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Mic.

Microphone audio input. See also Line Level.
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Microphone Amplification

A microphone is a device which converts sound waves to electrical impulses. High quality microphones usually generate a very low signal level. Low noise*, high fidelity pre-amplification is required to boost the output of a microphone before the signal reaches the main audio amplifier where it is processed as a regular audio signal. Pre-amplifying low level microphone signals is achieved by precise matching of microphone impedance* and use of low noise electronic amplifying devices. Some microphones (mainly condenser type) need DC power in order to operate (phantom voltage) even before connecting to the amplification circuitry.
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Microphone Impedance

In order to obtain the highest quality output signal from a microphone, its internal impedance should be matched to that of a pre-amplifier with exactly the same input impedance. Microphone impedance may vary from a few ohms to several megaohms.
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Mono

Monophonic audio - a single channel of audio. See also stereo.
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Narration

A voice that explains what is happening on a video. Voiceover narration can add tremendous value to a video by explaining the situation being shown to viewers.
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Pan

To move the apparent location of a mono audio track to position it between the left and right stereo channels. With stereo clips, you adjust the balance between the two channels. See also balance.
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Playlist

Typically, a list of songs to be played in a specified order. Used to organize collections to download to a portable audio player or burn to a CD.
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Reverb

An audio effect that simulates the ambience of a room of a specific size and with different sound-absorbent properties.
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Sample Rate

The rate at which samples of a continuous signal, such as music or a sound, are captured into a digital representation of the original signal. A higher audio sampling rate, with more samples per second, creates a more accurate representation of the original sound. See also frame rate, Hz.
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Stereo

Two-channel audio, with left and right channels. See also mono, surround sound.
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Stereo Mixing

Simultaneous mixing and processing of both left and right audio signals.
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Stereo Simulation

An electronic process by which a mono audio signal is broken down into two signals, creating a three-dimensional stereophonic effect from a monophonic signal. In many instances, especially in old recordings, it is impossible to re-record the original signal in stereo. In such cases, high quality stereo stimulating circuitry can generate a three-dimensional effect covering the whole audio spectrum in both channels. True stereo simulation is achieved by manipulating the monophonic audio signal on the basis of frequencies and phases, taking into consideration the physical aspects of hearing (distance between the human ears, human frequency hearing response and the psychological perception of sound).
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Sweeten

To use audio effects to enhance and manipulate the audio sound.
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TOSlink

Commonly used to refer to optical digital audio cables, TOSlink stands for "Toshiba Link", and is Toshiba's brand name for optical digital audio cables.
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YU Meter

An audio mixer's display of audio levels for each track.
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Audio / Video


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AGC

Automatic Gain Control. Electronic circuitry that assures a fixed predefined output level, automatically compensating for varying input levels. Used in audio, video and RF equipment to ensure that output signals are maintained at constant levels in the face of wide variations in the signal-input levels. Low level signals are boosted and high level signals are attenuated to an average level. Automatic gain control has a tendency to introduce audio noise* and hiss* into the audio channel of a videotape. In sophisticated equipment, automatic gain control is often superfluous, and gives the user the option of manual control.
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Audio-Video Combiner

A device which combines audio and video signals. In the analog world it describes a machine, which modulates the audio signal on a high frequency carrier and mixes it with the video signal for transmission on a single cable. In the digital world it describes a device which embeds digital audio signals within a digital video signal.
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Automatic Noise Gate

A unique feature, available only on Kramer equipment, which provides optimal automatic suppression of snow* (signal noise level) during any stage of video enhancement* (See Noise Gate.)
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AV

Audio/Video
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AVI

Audio Video Interleaved. A computer graphics animation format used in Microsoft(tm) Video for Windows. This format interleaves digitized video frames (or computer-generated frames) and synchronized audio in one file. The clips generated in the AVI format may be played back in a Windows(r) equipped PC, usually independent of screen resolution and color palette
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Matrix Switching

An audio-video matrix switcher is a device which resembles a telephone switchboard. It is an array of electronic switches, which routes a number of audio-video signals to one or more outputs. An audio-video matrix switcher usually has several video and stereo/audio inputs, which can be directed by the user in any combination to various audio-video output devices connected to the switchers. Monitors, VCRs and other output devices can be arranged. The user can direct camera number 1 to VCR number 2 while simultaneously connecting camera number 8 to monitor number 1. The possibilities are almost endless.
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Switcher

General term for a device used to route different signals (audio, video or RF) from various sources to various acceptors. For example, a classic video switcher switches between the pictures from a number of video cameras* to one monitor.
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Networking


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AES

An acronym for Advanced Encryption Standard. A symmetric encryption algorithm used to protect data. This is aimed at replacing DES. It is one of the encryption options for a wireless network when WPA or WPA2 is used.
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BCD

Binary Coded Decimal. A coding system in which each decimal digit from 0 to 9 is represented by four binary digits (0 or 1).
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Bit

Short for Binary Digit. The smallest piece of binary digital data and is represented by either a 1 or a 0. Often the number of bits is used to describe the attributes of a pixel are used in digital video as a representation of signal quality (i.e. an 8 bit signal can have 256 levels from black to white while a 10 bit signal can have 1024 levels). See Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte, Petabyte
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Byte

A byte consists of 8 bits or 10 bits. Also see Bit, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte, Petabyte.
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CAT 5

Category 5 cable, commonly known as Cat 5, is an unshielded twisted pair type cable designed for high signal integrity. The actual standard defines specific electrical properties of the wire, but it is most commonly known as being rated for its Ethernet capability of 100 Mbit/s at 100 Mhz. Its specific standard designation is EIA/TIA-568. Cat 5 cable typically has three twists per inch of each twisted pair of 24 gauge copper wires within the cable.
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CAT 5e

CAT 5enhanced, Similar to Cat 5 cable, but is enhanced to support speeds of up to 1000 Mbits/s.
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CAT 6

4 twisted copper wire pair Cabling standard for Ethernet, provide performance up to 250Mhz, Frequently used on 1Gbits/s ethernet networks
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CAT 6a

CAT 6 augmented, 4 twisted copper wire pair Cabling standard for Ethernet, provide performance up to 250Mhz and 500 Mhz, Frequently used on up to 10Gbits/s ethernet networks
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CAT 7

Future 4 twisted copper wire pair Cabling standard for Ethernet, design to provide performance up to 600 Mhz, to be used on 10Gbits/s ethernet networks
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DHCP

An acronym for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. This is a communications protocol that allows network administrators manage and automate the assignment of IP addresses through a network. Every time a device connects to the network with DHCP it can be assigned a different address.
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DNS

An acronym for Domain Name System. This is a system that translates the Internet domain names into their respective IP addresses. This information is usually stored in a database and a service will then lookup the IP address for a specific domain name. When an address is type in a Web browser, a DNS lookup is performed to find the actual IP address.
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Fiber Optics

A medium for transmitting analog and digital signals which is made of translucent fibers with appropriate interfaces, using light to represent the signals. The original signals are recovered back to electronic signals at the remote edge of the fiber. The optical fiber system provides high electrical isolation between transmitter and receiver, as well as immunity to electromagnetic and static interference. The signal loss in a Fiber Optics system is usually smaller than in coax cables, and therefore optic fibers are used to carry signals over very long distances (tens and hundreds of kilometers.)
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FireWire

Apple Inc.'s brand name for IEEE 1394, is a serial bus interface standard for high-speed communications at the speed uo to 3.2 Gbits/s
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Gateway

A network point that acts as the entrance to another network. The router acts as the gateway to your local network, when you access the Internet through the router.
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Gigabyte

One Billion Bytes. (~1,000,000,000) bytes. Also see Bit, Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Terabyte, Petabyte
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i.LINK

SONY brand name for IEEE 1394, is a serial bus interface standard for high-speed communications at the speed uo to 3.2 Gbits/s
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IP Address

Short name for Internet Protocol Address. This is a series of four numbers separated by dots, for example 192.168.1.1. Every computer connected to a network has its own unique IP address.
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Kilobyte

One thousand (~1,000) bytes. Also see Bit, Byte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte, Petabyte
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LAN

An acronym for Local Area Network. This is a network that covers a small, local area such as a home or office. A LAN network can be configured to transfer data at a high rate of speed.
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Mbps, Mb/s

Megabits per second. A measure of data transfer speed. 1 Mbps represents 1,000,000 bits being transmitted in one second.
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Megabyte

One million bytes. (~1,000,000) bytes. Also see Bit, Byte, Kilobyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte, Petabyte
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Memory Stick

A removable digital media card that is used in many applications. Often used to transfer camera setups and scene files between Sony HDW-F900 Camcorders or HDC-F950 Cameras.
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MHz

Megahertz or 1,000,000 Hertz. A measurement of frequency.
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Patch Panel

A connector panel facilitating cross connection of video and audio signals.
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Petabyte

One quadrillion bytes. (~1,000,000,000,000,000) bytes. Also see Bit, Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte
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RAM

Random Access Memory, a temporary memory into which data is stored.
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ROM

Read Only Memory, a permanent memory from which data can be read. This information can’t be deleted nor altered.
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RS-232

Communication methods between computers and video equipment that are hardware based and software controlled. In the computers, RS-232 is carried through the serial port* to another serial port, where the data streams serially between the computer and its peripherals - mouse, plotter, printer, etc. In the computer field there is usually a handshake protocol* between the ports that operate bi-directionally. Video equipment can be controlled by either RS-232 or by RS-422 system, and as the RS-422 method connects several devices on the same line in parallel in a simple way, it is more popular in the video market. Computer controlled VCRs, editing controllers, switchers and other studio equipment is found in most video studios. In order to successfully link two pieces of hardware, they must use the same communication protocol*.
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RS-422

Communication methods between computers and video equipment that are hardware based and software controlled. In the computers, RS-232 is carried through the serial port* to another serial port, where the data streams serially between the computer and its peripherals - mouse, plotter, printer, etc. In the computer field there is usually a handshake protocol* between the ports that operate bi-directionally. Video equipment can be controlled by either RS-232 or by RS-422 system, and as the RS-422 method connects several devices on the same line in parallel in a simple way, it is more popular in the video market. Computer controlled VCRs, editing controllers, switchers and other studio equipment is found in most video studios. In order to successfully link two pieces of hardware, they must use the same communication protocol*.
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SSID

An acronym for Service Set Identifier. A unique keyword of up to 32 characters (letters or numbers) that a wireless network card can connect to. For home users, this identifier can be set within a wireless router. This SSID of a wireless network can be broadcast to all computers within range of the signal to allow the computers to connect to the network.
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Terabyte

One trillion bytes. (~1,000,000,000,000) bytes. Also see Bit, Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, Petabyte
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TKIP

An acronym for Temporal Key Integrity Protocol. A security protocol designed to replace WEP on wireless networks without replacing legacy hardware. If can select TKIP when you specify WPA within your wireless router.
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TP

Twisted Pair. A system for transferring high frequency signals on a twisted pair of wires instead of a coax cable. The TP system is used in video and in the computer world as one of the network interconnecting standards. The twisted pair system is essentially a balanced* system, where antiphase signals are transmitted on the two wires. Some sophisticated TP systems allow the transfer of several signals simultaneously on the wires, such as video and two audio channels.
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Twisted Pair

Twisted Pair. A system for transferring high frequency signals on a twisted pair of wires instead of a coax cable. The TP system is used in video and in the computer world as one of the network interconnecting standards. The twisted pair system is essentially a balanced* system, where antiphase signals are transmitted on the two wires. Some sophisticated TP systems allow the transfer of several signals simultaneously on the wires, such as video and two audio channels.
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USB 1.1

Universal Serial Bus. A serial bus standard to connect devises. USB 1.1 transfer data at the speed of 12 Mbits/second.
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USB 2.0

Hi-Speed Universal Serial Bus. A serial bus standard to connect devises. USB 2.0 transfer data at the speed of 480 Mbits/second.
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USB 3.0

Future Version of Universal Serial Bus. A serial bus standard to connect devises. USB 3.0 will transfer data at the speed of 4.8 Gbits/second.
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WAN

An acronym for Wide Area Network. Unlike a LAN, a WAN covers a much larger geographical area, and is usually comprised of one or more LANs.
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WEP

An acronym for Wired Equivalency Protocol. A security protocol that provides a minimal level of security for a wireless network. It has flaws that skilled hackers can exploit. Use WPA if both your router and computers of capable of using it.
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WPA

An acronym for Wi-Fi Protected Access. This is a replacement data encryption method that replaces the much weak WEP protocol. It is an improvement over WEP because it uses dynamic keys when encrypting the data. This is done by utilizing TKIP to encrypt the data.
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Video


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0.167372685185185

This terminology has come into common usage to describe both high definition and standard definition systems where the ratio between luminance and chrominance samples is 4 to 1 (1 set of color difference samples (R-Y,B-Y) for every 4 luminance samples (Y)). In its original application in standard definition video signals, it represents a system where the luminance (Y) is sampled at 13.5 MHz and the R-Y,B-Y channels are each sampled at 3.75 MHz.
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0.168078703703704

Defines standard definition video signals, where the luminance (Y) is sampled at 13.5 MHz and the color difference samples (R-Y,B-Y) channels are each sampled at 6.75 MHz. This terminology has come into common usage to describe both high definition and standard definition systems where the ratio between luminance and chrominance samples is 2 to 1 (i.e. 2 sets of color difference samples (R-Y,B-Y) for every 4 luminance samples (Y)). Also see 22:11:11
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0.169490740740741

Defines standard definition video signals, where all signals (usually R,G,B but also Y, R-Y,B-Y) are sampled at 13.5 MHz. This terminology has come into common usage to describe both high definition and standard definition systems where sampling is done on the RGB components of a video signal. Also see 22:22:22
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0.338981481481481

Defines standard definition video signals, where all signals (usually R,G,B but also Y, R-Y,B-Y) are sampled at 27 MHz. Also the name of a color enhancement system made by DaVinci Systems that processes standard definition video.
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0.92443287037037

Defines high definition video signals, where the luminance (Y) is sampled at 74.25 MHz and the color difference samples (R-Y,B-Y) channels are each sampled at 37.125 MHz. Note that it has become commonplace to denote HDTV Y,R-Y,B-Y also as 4:2:2. While technically incorrect, it is popularly used in a great deal of published literature.
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0.932199074074074

Denotes a high definition system where all signals (R,G,B) are sampled at 74.25 MHz. Note that it has become commonplace to denote HDTV RGB also as 4:4:4. While technically incorrect, it is popularly used in a great deal of published literature.
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1.78

The ratio of the horizontal size of a screen to its vertical size as 1.78 units wide to 1.0 units high. This ratio is the most standardized aspect ratio of HDTV and Widescreen SDTV. Also known as 16x9. Also see Aspect Ratio- Picture
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1.85

The ratio of the horizontal size of a screen to its vertical size as 1.85 units wide to 1.0 units high. This ratio is the most common screen ratio for motion pictures. Also see Aspect Ratio- Picture
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2.35

A highly popular widescreen motion picture film format of 2.35 units wide by 1 unit high. Also see Aspect Ratio- Picture
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5.1

Denotes an audio system that has 5 full range channels (Left, Center, Right, Left-Rear, Right-Rear) and one Low Frequency Effects (LFE) channel.
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1000/1001

When the NTSC color television system was being developed, the designers wanted to make it compatible with all of the old black and white systems that were already in people’s homes. To do this, they had to make some compromises. The thing that has probably caused the most problems for our industry over the years is that the field rate was changed by 1/1.001 from 60 to 59.94 per second. This was a small enough change that the older TV’s would still receive the new color broadcast and allowed for the new color information to be encoded into the broadcasted signal. This offset gives rise to “niceties” such as drop-frame timecode and audio that also has to run at the right rate. Although having analog origins, it has also been extended into the digital and HD world where 24, 30, and 60 frames/fields per second becomes 23.98, 29.97, and 59.94  to be compatible with existing NTSC formats and workflows.
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1080/24P

Refers to an internationally standardized High Definition production format (ITU BT 709) having a digital sampling structure of 1920 (H) x 1080 (V) and operating at 24-frames per second progressively scanned. Often used to loosely describe a system that operates at 23.976P as well.
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1080/60i

Refers to a standardized High Definition production format (SMPTE 274M and ITU 709) having a digital sampling structure of 1920 (H) x 1080 (V) and operating in interlaced scan mode at 60 fields per second. Often used to loosely describe a system that operates at 59.94i as well.
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1080i

1080i is 1920x1080 resolution, interlaced Scan
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1080p

1080 p is 1920x1080 resolution, Progressive Scan, forseen as future HD standard
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1280x720

Refers to a high definition digital sampling structure of 1280 horizontally and 720 vertically. All 1280x720 images are progressively scanned (720P).
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16x9

The standardized aspect ratio of HDTV and Widescreen SDTV – having a width of 16 units and a height of 9 units. Picture, 1.78
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1920x1080

Refers to a digital sampling structure of 1920 horizontally and 1080 vertically. 1920x1080 images can be scanned either interlaced (1080i) or progressively (1080P).
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23.98 or 23.976

Refers to a video image rate of 23.976 (truncated to 23.98) frames per second – which is deliberately offset from 24 frames so that a simple 3:2 process will produce the standard 59.94 fields per second interlaced video. Also see 1000/1001, 24P.
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2-3/3-2 Pulldown

Process used to convert material from film to interlaced NTSC display rates, from 24 to 30 frames per second. This is done by duplicating fields, 2 from one frame and then 3 from the next frame (or 3 and then 2). Both terms are often used interchangeably to describe the effect. See also inverse telecine.
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24P

Terminology for 24 full frames per second digital video progressively captured. In most cases it refers to the HD picture format of 1920x1080, though it is also used with 1280x720 images as well. Often used to loosely describe a capture system that operates at 23.976P as well. Also see 1000/1001.
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24PsF

Term used to describe a 24 (or in common usage 23.98) frame progressive video that divides the video in segments of even and odd lines for transmission and storage (and often display). Though transmitted similarly as an interlaced signal, if treated as a progressive signal, does not cause the same harmful artifacts that interlace scanning causes. Also see PsF Imaging.
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29.97P

Terminology for 29.97 full frames per second digital video progressively captured.
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2k

Resolution defined as 2,048 pixels wide by 1,556 high. Also the name of a color enhancement system made by DaVinci Systems that processes Standard Definition, High Definition, and high resolution images. Resolution defined as 2,048 pixels wide by 1,556 high. Also the name of a color enhancement system made by DaVinci Systems that processes Standard Definition, High Definition, and high resolution images.
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3:2 Pulldown

The process used to convert 24 frame per second film or 24P video into 59.94i video. The term originates from the mechanical action of the pulldown gate in a telecine which pulled each film frame into the imaging area. Technically the 3:2 pulldown process consists of two parts: the slowing of the frame rate by a factor of 1000/1001 from 24.000 fps to 23.976 fps and the creation of a "3:2" field cadence. The 3:2 cadence itself is created by taking one frame of the 24 frame source and filling 3 of the 59.94 fields. The next frame of the 24 frame source will only fill 2 of the 59.94 fields, the next frame 3 fields, the next frame 2 fields, etc. This sequence causes 4 of the 24 frame per second acquired material to fit into 5 frames of the destination 59.94i video. The term "pulldown" is now commonly used to describe any combination of a 1000/1001 speed change and/or 3:2 cadence creation. Also see 1000/1001.
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30P

Terminology for 30 full frames per second digital video progressively captured. Often used to loosely describe a capture system that operates at 29.97P.
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480i

also known as or 640X480i or 640X240p. Defines SDTV resolution.
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480p

also known as 852X480p. Defines specific television resolution.
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48PsF

Term often used incorrectly to describe a 24 frame progressive segmented frame video.  In actual terms, 48PsF would describe an image captured progressively at 48 frames per second and transmitted as a segmented frame.  Incorrect usage stems from having each segment of a 24PsF frame arrive at twice the captured rate (48 times a second).  See PsF Imaging.
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4k

Resolution defined as 4,096 pixels wide by 3,112 deep.
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4X3

an aspect ratio of the picture, also know as square picture.
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59.94i

Describes an interlaced video signal where 1/2 of the total lines of the picture are captured and displayed every 1/59.94th of a second. See also Interlaced Imaging, Progressive Imaging and PsF Imaging.
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59.94P

Describes a progressive video signal where all lines of the picture are captured and displayed every 1/59.94th of a second. See also Interlaced Imaging, Progressive Imaging and PsF Imaging. 
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60i

Describes a interlaced video signal where 1/2 of the total lines of the picture are captured and displayed every 1/60th of a second. Often used to loosely describe a capture system that operates at 59.94i. See also Interlaced Imaging, Progressive Imaging and PsF Imaging, 1000/1001.
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60P

Describes a progressive video signal where all of the total lines of the picture are captured and displayed every 1/60th of a second. Often used to loosely describe a capture system that operates at 59.94P. See also Interlaced Imaging, Progressive Imaging and PsF Imaging, 1000/1001.
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720/60P

Refers to a High Definition production format (SMPTE 296M) having a digital sampling structure of 1280 (H) x 720 (V) and operating at 60-frames per second progressively scanned. Often used to loosely describe a capture system that operates at 59.94P as well.
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720p

also known as 1280X720p. Defines specific television resolution.
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A/B Editing

A style of video editing in which you edit together clips in pairs - A and B - typically with a transition from one to the next. This style is useful for assembling a program with simple drag-and-drop convenience. See also single-track editing.
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AAF

The Advanced Authoring Format – Designed as the next generation EDL, AAF is an industry initiative to create a file interchange standard for the easy sharing of media data and metadata among digital production tools and content creation applications, regardless of platform. It includes EBU/SMPTE metadata and management of pluggable effects and codecs. It allows open connections between equipment where not only video and audio are transferred but also metadata including information on how the content is composed, where it came from, etc. It can fulfil the role of an all-embracing EDL or offer the basis for a media archive that any AAF-enabled system can use.
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AC-3

A digital surround-sound system introduced by Dolby(tm) laboratories. The system is usually comprised of 5.1 channels - five discrete channels - left, right, center, back left and back right and in addition one Subwoofer covering the bass (low frequency signals) that belongs to all channels. As the ear is not sensitive to the direction of very low frequencies, the "low-bass" area, one Subwoofer is sufficient. In order to retrieve and decode AC-3 sound channels, a special amplifier/receiver is needed. The AC-3 system is also available on some digital video equipment for recording and playback, such as DVD*. (See also Dolby surround*.)
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ACC

Automatic Chroma Correction. A system built into some VCRs and TV sets for automatic adjustment of color saturation levels. Most ACC systems measure the Color Burst* amplitude and use it as reference. As the system is automatic, erroneous color levels can appear in the video scene - an original grayish scene can become over colored, or a rich, saturated-color scene can become dull.
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Acquisition

The gathering of data, whether it be photographic, audio, or for some other purpose.
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Active Video

The part of a video signal visible on the screen.
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Adaptive Comb Filter

A Comb Filter* that uses adaptation technology - changing its operation parameters by dynamically following changes in the picture.
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ADC

Analog to Digital Converter. A device which converts an Analog* signal to a digital form. The process may be done with different levels of accuracy. The conversion fidelity is dependent on two factors - sampling rate and number of bits. The higher the rate and/or bits used during conversion, the more accurately the analog signal is reproduced. Until recently, the most common sampling speed was four times the color subcarrier frequency (4xFsc - 17.7 Msamples/sec for PAL 14.3 Msamples/sec for NTSC) Today, the standard (industrial and broadcast) tends to be 13.5 Msamples/sec for luminance signals. For color difference signals it is usually half for both PAL and NTSC. Industrial video signals are digitized at 8-bit accuracy (256 levels) while broadcast signals are digitized at 10-bit accuracy (1024 levels) or even at 12 bit. Hi-Fi audio signals are usually sampled at double the highest frequency audible to the human ear, i.e., 20 kHz (or more - sampling at 44 kHz or even higher frequencies) with an accuracy of 16 bits or more.
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ADC

Apple Display Connector
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AES

Audio Engineering Society, a worldwide organization.
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Afterburner

Usually refers to the HD9150 series of products by Evertz. The HD9150 “Afterburner” series downconverts HDTV input video to digital and analog standard definition video with and without burnt in timecode/data windows.
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AGC

Abbreviation for automatic gain control. On a TV or VCR, AGC is a circuit that automatically adjusts the incoming signal to the proper levels for display or recording. On a video camera, AGC is a circuit that automatically adjusts the sensitivity of the pickup tube to render the most pleasing image.
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Alarm Camera Scanner

An electronic device, mainly used in security installations, where several video cameras, positioned in different parts of a premises, scan automatically, and are viewed one after the other on one monitor. When an intrusion occurs in the field-of-view of one of the cameras, a special alarm signal is sent to the scanner instantly activating the particular camera in question. It usually triggers an additional alarm device drawing attention to the event. Sophisticated scanners have internal microprocessor control, allowing them to skip or analyze every scanned source, as well as activating, when necessary, a special device, which relays a suspicious camera image to a remote location for monitoring via a telephone line.
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Aliasing

Defects or distortion in a television picture due to sampling limitations. Defects are commonly seen as jagged edges on diagonal lines and twinkling or brightening (beating) in picture detail.
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Aliasing Noise

An artifact created while an ADC* converts an analog signal to digital form and the sampling rate of the converter is less than double the highest frequency component within the analog signal or one of its harmonics.
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Alpha Channel

The Alpha channel is a separate channel of data, transmitted alongside the original color or video information - whether it is video or computer based. It is used to specify an Alpha value for each color pixel in order to control pixel based, image blending and mixing. Values of the Alpha channel range between 0 and 1.
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Alpha Mix

Image blending and mixing based and controlled by the Alpha Channel data stream.
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Amplitude Modulation

Amplitude Modulation, AM, is used when a signal, (usually an RF* signal) is transmitted carrying low frequency information. The low frequency signal modulates (changes) the amplitude of the RF signal, and is recovered (detected) at the receiver's end. Video information that is transmitted on the air as TV transmission employs this system. Some radio stations use it also (AM Broadcast), although the superior FM* system dominates radio transmissions.
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Analog

Describes a continuously variable signal of some sort. Commonly used to describe equipment or methods that do not involve the electronic digitization of a signal into data. Examples are can be found in Audio Recording (Vinyl Records, Cassette tapes), Video Recording (BetacamSP, VHS), and Broadcasting (AM, FM, Conventional TV).
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Analog Monitor

A video monitor which accepts analog level signals. Several types of inputs are accepted by analog monitors making them very flexible: composite* video, RGBS*, YC*, YUV* and any combination of these standards. The signals transmitted to an analog monitor are usually between 0 and 1 Volt and ride on 75-ohm coaxial cables.
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Analog Video Signal

Signal in which the output varies as a continuous function of the input, while the values of the transmitted information are within defined limits. Any variation in an analog video signal may represent a specific video parameter, e.g., when the luminance* signal is high (1 V) the picture is very bright. When the signal is low (0.1 V), the picture is very dark; at 0 V the picture is totally black. TTL* digital signals, in contrast, are predefined as only 0 or 5 V or other fixed logic levels and do not vary.
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Anamorphic

A term used to denote a difference in magnification along mutually perpendicular meridians. Anamorphic systems are basically image-distorting systems. A wide formatted image will be compressed horizontally creating a “squished” looking picture to fit into a narrow medium (film or video). For proper viewing, the image must be expanded back to its original wide format.
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Ancillary Data

Data added to a digital video data stream including information such as embedded digital audio, control signals, etc.
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Animate

To move and manipulate an object over time, such as a title, a superimposed logo, or a transition between frames.
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Animation

Originally, creation of the appearance of movement, such as in a cartoon, by flipping a series of gradually varying drawings in rapid sequence. Today, creating animation and cartoons is done more effectively using computers with appropriate graphics software and genlocking* hardware. The final product of computerized animation can be integrated into videotapes or a video production using encoding* equipment.
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ANSI

American National Standards Institute.
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Antialias

To smooth out a jagged or stair-step appearance or motion between adjacent points so that it appears continuous.
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Antialiasing

Antialiasing is a procedure which, by smoothing and filtering, eliminates or reduces, aliasing noise. The procedure usually involves low pass filtering of the processed signal prior to digitizing in order to eliminate signals, having frequencies close and greater than half of the sampling frequency.
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Aperture

An adjustable opening that effects the amount of light entering a camera. The aperture (sometimes referred to as the Iris) is measured in F-stops. Smaller F-stop numbers mean that more light reaches the optical sensing device of the camera.
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APL

Average Picture Level. A measure of average video luminance level expressed as percent of maximal white level. When the APL is low, the picture is dark, when the APL is high the picture is bright.
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Arri D-20

Next Generation cinematography camera project by Arrithat is promising high resolution digital motion picture capture using traditional 35mm lenses.
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ASC

American Society of Cinematographers http://www.theasc.com
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Aspect Ratio

The ratio between the width and height of the TV picture on the screen. In a normal TV set or monitor the aspect ratio is 4 to 3 (4:3). The new aspect ratio in HDTV and IDTV/EDTV is 16:9 which resembles the aspect ratio in a movie theatre (Widescreen). New TV systems support both 4:3 and 16:9 aspect ratio (PAL PLUS) and can automatically switch between them. Some common aspect ratios: 1.33 (4x3) Standard Television or Academy Standard, 1.78 (16x9) HDTV, 1.85 Academy Flat, 2.35 Cinemascope.
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Aspect Ratio (Pixel)

The ratio of pixel width to pixel height. Standard NTSC (ITU-R 601) digital video has rectangular pixels. Computers and HDTV have square pixels.
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ATSC

Acronym for Advanced Television System Committee. Formed to establish technical standards for advanced television systems, including high definition television. (HDTV) http://www.atsc.org
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Attenuation

This refers to signal loss in a transmission system
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ATV

Advanced Television. A digital television system comprising standard, enhanced and high-definition versions.
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Audio Effects Palette

A window that lists the available audio effects, grouped by type. Used to access effects to be applied to an audio clip. You can also reorganize and customize the list.
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Avid DS Nitris

A nonlinear production system made by Avid for conforming and finishing of projects at multiple non-compressed HDTV and SDTV formats. Nitris is part of the Avid DNA (Digital Non-linear Accelerator) line that features custom built hardware acceleration and breakout boxes. Includes a complete range of seamlessly integrated picture and audio editing, compositing, paint, animation, character generation and media management tools. Also available as Avid DS Nitris Editor (without compositing functionality)
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Back Porch

A part of the composite video signal which is between the trailing edge of the horizontal sync and the beginning of the corresponding active video line (end of horizontal blanking).
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Balanced

A signal that is divided into two antiphase signals, traveling on two wires (and sometimes with a third - a ground reference wire). Transmitting a balanced signal achieves better signal to noise ratio, and the signal is more immune to noise and interference. The receiving end requires a differential amplifier, which amplifies only the differences between the antiphase signals, thus canceling noise picked up on the way. The balanced system is used either when very low signals are to be transmitted over long distances (such as those generated from high quality microphones) or at broadcast audio studios for highest quality signal recreation. The balanced signal system is used in TP* (Twisted Pair) wire setups when it is essential to use non-coaxial wires for data, video or audio transmissions.
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Balanced Signal

A signal that is divided into two antiphase signals, traveling on two wires (and sometimes with a third - a ground reference wire). Transmitting a balanced signal achieves better signal to noise ratio, and the signal is more immune to noise and interference. The receiving end requires a differential amplifier, which amplifies only the differences between the antiphase signals, thus canceling noise picked up on the way. The balanced system is used either when very low signals are to be transmitted over long distances (such as those generated from high quality microphones) or at broadcast audio studios for highest quality signal recreation. The balanced signal system is used in TP* (Twisted Pair) wire setups when it is essential to use non-coaxial wires for data, video or audio transmissions.
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Bandwidth

The amount of information that can be transmitted in a given period of time. For video information, a large amount of bandwidth can be generally associated with better quality of the picture. Digital video in particular requires large amounts of bandwidth. Often, compression techniques are used to reduce the bandwidth needs especially for transmission and storage.
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Bandwidth Compression

A process that reduces digital signal bandwidth in order to allow its transmission as a DTV* signal. A 6 MHz transmission bandwidth requires signal bandwidth compression down to about 20 Mbits/sec.
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Baseband Video

Normally refers to a non-modulated composite video signal, with frequency spectrum extending from a few Hertz (DC) up to several MHz, and covering the full bandwidth of the video signal.
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Batch Capture

The automated process of capturing an entire group of clips (such as from a DV camcorder) as defined by a batch list.
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Batch list

A list of clips with the timecode values for each In and Out point (also called a timecode log) to be used in a batch capture process. See also batch capture, log, timecode.
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BER

Bit Error Rate. A term used in digital circuits for measuring the fidelity of a transmitted and received digital signal by measuring the error probability (or number of bits received incorrectly.)
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Beta (max)

A video recording and playback* standard on 1/2" tapes distributed mainly by Sony(tm). From its inception BETAMAX competed with the VHS* system developed by JVC(tm). Both were intended for home use and there was no substantial difference between the two formats. Today, the Betamax system for home video is practically non-existent as that market is completely dominated by the VHS system.
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Betacam

BETACAM and BETACAM SP are wide-spread professional video recording and playback formats. BETACAM uses 1/2 inch tapes, employing the component video* system for highest professional quality outputs. Many editing systems* and controllers are designed around this format.
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Betacam-sx

A digital video format introduced by SONY(tm). This format uses MPEG* compression with a data rate of 18Mbits/sec. The compression ratio is high - approaching 10:1. Output quality is very good despite the high compression ratio because it uses an MPEG-2 4:2:2 profile. Cassettes use metal particles technology and come in two sizes - 60 minutes for fieldwork and 184 minutes for studios. These VCRs also play analog Beta tapes, for backward compatibility.
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Bin Window

A window used to import and organize folders of source clips.
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Bitstream

A collection of data, as in video or audio data compressed to a file or transmitted between devices.
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Black Burst

A video signal comprising sync* and color burst* signals which produces a black image on the screen. It is used to genlock* other video sources to the same sync and color information. Black burst generators are used in video studios to genlock an entire studio to the same signal for easier switching and mixing between sources.
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Black Level

That level of the DC voltage of a particular part of the video signal which corresponds to the black areas in a video scene. The black level is used as a reference for comparison with other tones in the picture and other video signals.
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Black Level Clamping

An electronic process, which establishes a fixed DC level for a picture signal at the beginning of each scanning line. The black level* of a video signal is set to a specific, predefined DC voltage. This process is used, for example, when two video signals are to be mixed and the black levels must therefore be equal.
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Blacker Than Black

Designation of a video signal, part of which (spikes or the sync tip) goes below black level transition. Usually, such signals (besides the sync), are undesirable within the video signal. They appear, however, due to image enhancement or poor transition response of the video amplifier or processor. If the signal excursions below black level are small, they can be ignored. If they are too large, approaching sync tip level, image instability might occur, as the blacker than black spikes may be interpreted as sync pulses. Sometimes those excursions are deliberately created for image enhancement and special effects and copy protection purposes. Digital processing can handle some blacker than black signals. BLANKING RETRACE PERIOD The period when the screen is darkened; this occurs when the electron ray in a monitor or a TV set retraces to start a new line or a new field. The instantaneous amplitude of that signal is such that it makes the return trace invisible. The blanking period is used to eliminate the appearance of the CRT retrace beam so it will not be visible on the monitor. Switching done during the retrace period results in "clean switching". (See Vertical Interval Switching.)
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Blanking Retrace Period

The period when the screen is darkened; this occurs when the electron ray in a monitor or a TV set retraces to start a new line or a new field. The instantaneous amplitude of that signal is such that it makes the return trace invisible. The blanking period is used to eliminate the appearance of the CRT retrace beam so it will not be visible on the monitor. Switching done during the retrace period results in "clean switching". (See Vertical Interval Switching.)
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Blooming

A disturbing phenomena apparent when a part of the video picture becomes "brighter than white" due to wrong exposure or due to a very strong light source shining directly into the camera lens. The blooming effect distorts the colors and the fine details of the area effected by the strong light. This effect can also be seen when a color decoder chip within a TV set or monitor is wrongly tuned or malfunctions. In order to check whether the blooming effect is a result of a badly illuminated scene or a malfunctioning monitor, the signal should be fed to another good monitor. If the effect persists, it shows that the video source is defective.
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Blue Key

Blue key generation is a process, which allows insertion of one video picture into a predetermined area in another one, through the use of special hardware. The primary picture is shot with the subject against a special blue tinted background. The blue content of this signal is then removed and the second picture is inserted in that area where the blue background was located. Blue keying is a very important special effect, which is often used in news broadcasting where pictures of the news being discussed are viewed on a screen behind the anchorman. An extension of the Blue Key is the Chroma Key*.
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Blue Screen

A specially colored backdrop (typically blue or green) that can be matched with a color key and made transparent so that it can be replaced with another video layer. For example, you can cut out a subject from the blue screen background and composite it into another scene. See also matte, key.
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BMP

The standard Windows bitmap still image file format. Bitmap files are not compressed, and are therefore significantly larger than the same image stored in formats such as GIF and JPEG.
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BNC

A type of connector used for high frequency signals in VCRs, general video equipment and RF* equipment.
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BNC connector

A twist-on connector commonly used for higher-end video systems. Used for both analog and digital signals. See also F connector, FireWire connector, RCA connector, S-Video connector.
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Boost-cut

The Bi-directional control of audio and video signals to permit raising and lowering of signal levels.
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Border

The boundary between two merged video pictures, such as in blue keying* or wiping*. Bordering is a special effect* which can be used in video processing to alter the border from a sharply defined line to a fuzzy ill-defined blend of the two pictures. The width of the border, its color and its texture are easily changed.
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Bottles

Color identification signals in the vertical interval period used in the older SECAM system which look like bottles on the oscilloscope.
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Bounce Signal

A special, artificially generated video signal for testing, where the APL* is changed at a low rate, testing the low frequency response of a video device as well as black level clamping*.
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Breezway

A part of the video signal which belongs to the blanking period, extending from the rising edge of the horizontal sync signal and the beginning of the color burst* signal.
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Burst Gate

The signal generated in many video processors starting at the outset of the color burst signal* and ending at the end of that signal. This burst gate signal is mainly used for black level clamping * and DC restoration.
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Bypassing

Monitoring an unprocessed video signal. For example, when using a screen splitter*, special effects* generation is often previewed on screen before actual recording. The processed signal is observed on half the screen and on the other half, the unprocessed, bypassed signal is viewed for comparison.
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Cable Equalization

An electronic process compensating for high frequencies losses incurring in long coaxial cables due to various cable shortcomings. Equalization is usually performed by special controls or trimmers mounted on the amplifier or switcher which allow variable operation to equalize different cable lengths and qualities. Equalization is best done at the source amplifier, at the beginning of the long cable, to preserve optimal signal to noise ratio. Cable equalization (EQ) is also important for fast digital signals. For digital signals, cable EQ is done at the end of the cable. In this case the equalization is automatic and no user trimming is required.
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Cable Tv (catv)

A TV system that uses cables rather than antennas for the transmission of TV programs and commercials. In many countries the cable TV network transmits side by side with the regular TV network (MATV)*. Many commercial stations use cable TV, because it is easier to control and the picture quality is superior to that received from an antenna. Hundreds of channels can be transmitted simultaneously with CATV, which is almost impossible with MATV.
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Camcorder

The combination of a camera and a video recorder in one device. It permits easy and rapid simultaneous photography and recording. It is available in most video formats, VHS, VHS-C*, Beta*, 8-mm video*, Hi-8*, Super-VHS*, DV* etc.
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Camera

See VIDEO CAMERA.
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Camera Breakout

A single camera cable handles the following signals: video, audio, DC power supply, remote control line, tally* control and others. A camera breakout setup allows various signals, which are transmitted on the main camera cable, to be separated and made available externally. On many better video processing devices there are breakout systems. A connector outlet is provided to which the multi-pin camera plug is attached.
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Camera Supply

The camera power supply. Most video cameras* can use an external 12 VDC voltage supply which is derived either from a battery belt worn by the cameraman, from a battery within the video recorder itself, from the mains power supply (after down-conversion) or some other DC source. The required 12 VDC supply must be highly regulated. Many problems in camera recording such as black-outs, distorted images, faulty colors and other interference showing on the screen can be the result of a poor power supply.
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Camera Utility

Crew member as designated by Local 600, IATSE. Assists the Video Controller in the setup of the cameras, pulls cables during rehearsals and takes, assists the camera operator during complex pedestal moves (does not focus), setup and maintenance of quad split monitors, cables and all other camera accessories.
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Caption

Title text that labels a scene or identifies a location or person onscreen.
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Capture

To digitize, or import and convert, video and/or audio into digital format on your computer from external devices, such as a camcorder or VCR. You typically use a special video capture card to input analog video into your computer, and then convert and save it into digital files on your disk. With DV camcorders, you transfer digital data directly into your computer over a FireWire / 1394 interface. See also import.
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Capture Rate

Used to describe the number of times per second that a picture is taken or captured in an imaging system. In a progressive system the capture rate is equal to the frame rate. In an interlaced system, the capture rate is double the frame rate because at each capture interval, only one field (a half resolution image) is acquired. It takes two fields to make a complete frame. It is standard practice to refer to the capture rate of an image as well as how it is captured when describing it instead of the frame rate (i.e. 60i (60 captures, 30 frames per second), 30P (30 captures, 30 frames per second) and 60P (60 captures, 60 frames per second)) Also see Frame Rate, Interlace Imaging, Progressive Imaging.
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CBR

Acronym for Constant Bit Rate. A compression scheme in which each unit of input material is always compressed to the same output size. For MPEG-2 video, for example, this means that the compressed data always has the same data rate (that is, bytes per second), even when the input material is very easy to encode. See also VBR.
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CCD

Charge Coupled Device. The imaging device used in most modern electronic cameras.
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CCIR

Comite Consulatif International des Radiocommunications. A European committee which was situated in Paris and created and approved standards related to Audio and Video. The committee is no longer active and has been replaced by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU.)
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CCIR 601

Specifications and parameters for application of Component Video* signals (Y, Cr, Cb) in a 4:2:2* system, recommended by the CCIR, now known as ITU-R BT.601-2.
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CCIR 656

The definitions of the parallel connector pinouts, multiplexing schemes, syncs, blanking periods, etc. for parallel and serial interfaces with CCIR 601, now known as ITU-R BT.656.
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CCTV (closed Circuit Tv)

A television system used primarily in commercial installations, where a TV-video system is used in-house for different applications. CCTV is mainly used for security, medical and educational purposes.
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CD

Compact Disk. A digital, optical-based audio, video and computer data storage medium.
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CDI

Compact Disk Interactive. A machine designed for consumer use, like audio CD*, with special dedicated compression hardware. It allows storing and replaying a much larger quantity of data. It supports JPEG* and MPEG* standards.
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CDMT

Compressed Time Division Multiplex. A color component time compression system used by BETACAM* VTRs. The two-chrominance signals (R-Y and B-Y) are compressed, multiplexed and recorded at the same time as the luminance signal.
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CGA (color Graphics Adapter)

An obsolete color standard developed by IBM for personal computers which permits the display of only four colors out of a menu of a total of 16 colors at any given moment, and at a resolution of 320 x 200 lines (on a TTL* digital monitor). With special electronic processing hardware, CGA output provided a video image, computer generated, that was used for special effects*, animation*, titling*, etc.
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Channel

The subcomponents of a clip. For images, an alpha channel can contain a matte or mask image to key certain regions of the image to be transparent. For audio, the separate left and right channels of a stereo clip.
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Character Generator

A machine used in video production to produce captions or titles. The character generator is similar to a PC word processor, allowing the user to change fonts, character attributes, font colors, background colors and so on.
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Chip-set

Several electronic chips designed to perform a specific task together are called one chip-set. Manufacturers of VGA* cards, computer main boards, multimedia hardware and other video hardware use chip-sets to perform specific tasks which are integrated into the work of the entire board.
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Chroma Corrector

A device used to correct problems related to the chroma subsection of the video signal, including chroma saturation, hue*, color balance and color noise*.
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Chroma Key

A process available on better quality special-effects generators and mixers which allows superimposition or replacement of one video picture in a predetermined area of another one. The first picture is photographed with an object or person against a special, single-color background. The complete color content of this particular signal is removed and the second picture is inserted in the area where the background was (See Blue Key).
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Chroma Noise

Noise which manifests itself in a video picture as colored snow*. It is the product of one of the following factors: 1. The chrominance in the video signal is weak. 2. There is excessive color information, which creates over-saturation. 3. A poorly manufactured video device. Low quality videotapes. Poor color decoding. Good color processors* reduce or eliminate chroma noise.
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chrominance

The color of a video signal. Video signals are split into separate luma and chroma (color) components for higher-quality and more efficient transmission and encoding. The chroma signal is typically split into two components or color difference signals, such as YUV format. See also luminance.
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Chrominance Level

The level of color in a video picture as manifested by the strength and saturation of the tones. The higher the chrominance level the stronger the color (e.g., a strong signal produces red, and a weak signal, pink). A strong signal produces a high saturation level and a weak signal, a weak saturation level. Color saturation level can be changed using a color processor*. Thus colors can be made stronger or paler. A quality color processor can also change the tint, - red can be changed to green and green to blue.
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CIE

International Commission on Illumination - abbreviated as CIE from its French title "Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage" - is an organization devoted to international cooperation and exchange of information on all matters relating to the science and art of lighting and color.
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CineSpeedCAM

High Speed HD camera from BandPro. Can operate at 1536x1024 pixels at up to 1000fps, 1024x768 pixels at up to 2000fps, or 768x512 pixels upto 4000fps.
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Clamping

An electronic process, which corrects, line-by-line, the video blanking level or sync tips by clamping it to a predefined DC level. The process reduces the DC level changes when switching between different sources, eliminates picture jumps on the screen and the accumulation of low frequency noise and instability. Clamping also increases the dynamic range of video amplifiers by limiting the average picture changes, which stress the video amplifiers.
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Cliff Effect

Analog signal quality gradually degrades with cable length. Digital signals behave differently. Up to a certain distance, depending on equipment and cables used, the signal is perfect. Extending the cable length by only a few meters beyond that distance may cause a total signal crash which is known as the Cliff Effect.
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Clip

A short piece of video and/or audio, often containing an individual scene. When creating a video project, you import clip files into bins in your project, and often trim longer clips into individual scenes. You then edit the clips together on the Timeline to play in sequential order to tell the "story" of your production, with transitions between clips and other added effects.
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Clip Window

A window used to view and trim individual clips. See also Monitor window, Source view.
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Clipping

An electronic process for limiting the amplitude of video or audio signals. Sometimes, clipping is performed prior to Modulation* and sometimes to limit signal level, so that it will not exceed a predetermined, allowed level. In video, the term SOFT clipping is used when the luminance signal is limited, and HARD clipping is used when both luminance and chrominance signals are limited. Overclipping a signal can distort it, resulting in additional, unwanted harmonics.
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Closed Captioning

An operation for decoding text information transmitted alongside video and audio information. The decoded text is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
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Codec

A video or audio compression component that can both compress and decompress (encode and decode) files. Media formats and players, such as Windows Media, RealMedia, and QuickTime have a selection of codecs built in, and can add additional codecs to support new file formats. See also compression.
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COFDM

The DTV standard used by many European, South American and Asian broadcasters that is competing with ATCS (8VSB).
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Color Bar

An artificial video signal, electronically generated by a signal generator. It produces color bars on the video screen which are used to establish a proper color reference before recording and playback* and for adjustment purposes.
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Color Burst

A non-modulated color signal transmitted at the beginning of each scanning line (during the blanking period*) of a composite video* signal or the "C" component of a Y/C signal. It is used for color synchronization and to establish a reference for the color information following it. The color burst is an amplitude and phase reference for both color hue* and color intensity. It is transmitted at the DC voltage level which is practically the black level* of the signal. The luminance signal, which follows the color burst, should not fall below the color burst level. Black level clamping* is usually performed in the color burst area.
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Color Correction / Color Enhancement

The step in the post production process where the images are adjusted to both match subtle differences in shots and to create an overall look.
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Color Decoder

A device which breaks down the video signal to its color components - Red, Green and Blue. A color decoder chip set is used in TV receivers, for example, and the recovered color signals are used to drive the CRT.
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Color Difference

Component video uses Y (luminance) and two color difference signals: R-Y and B-Y representing through a formula, the red and the blue contents of the signals. The color difference signals are derived from a calculated subtraction of the luminance part from each of the signals representing the red and blue parts of the video signal. YIQ and YUV are essentially derived from similar formulas.
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Color Field

The number of a specific field in a color frame* sequence (1 to 8 in PAL, 1 to 4 in NTSC.)
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Color Frame

A set of video frames which is different in each broadcast standard (PAL, NTSC, SECAM) and which is made of a certain number of sequential frames with different SCH phases until the first frame SCH or color difference signal repeats. In PAL the sequence consists of 4 frames or 8 fields, in NTSC and SECAM it is 2 frames or 4 fields. In SECAM the structure is different from PAL or NTSC.
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Color Killer

Circuitry, which disables the color decoding* process in TV sets when a black and white transmission is received. The color killer circuitry looks for a color burst signal, and when it detects that the color burst is absent (as in black and white transmissions) color decoding circuitry is disabled. The circuitry was added to TV sets in order to improve the quality of black and white images, because the attempts of the TV to detect color information in a B&W signal result in artificial, disturbing color fringes and noise.
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Color Phase

The timing relationship in a video signal which keeps the hue* of a color signal correct, measured in degrees. Color information is encoded in the video signal as the difference in phase between the sine peaks of the chrominance signal and the color burst* subcarrier signal. If the two signals overlap exactly, then the phase difference is designated as zero degrees. If the sine signals do not overlap, the color phase can vary from 0 to 360 degrees.Each shift in the color phase represents a specific tint on the screen. If two sine waves are shifted one from the other by 180 degrees, then the colors are totally inverted.
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Color Processing

A way to alter the colors of a video signal. At the first stage, the video signal is separated into its black/white and color constituents. Further separation strips down the color information to its basic components, red, green and blue. After color correction, the signals are recombined into a normal video signal by the processor with improved or changed colors.
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Color Space

Color spaces are mathematical models used to specify, create and visualize color. Different models will represent the same color in different ways. As human's, we may define a color by its attributes of brightness, hue and colorfulness. A printing press defines a color in terms of the reflectance and absorbance of cyan, magenta, yellow and black inks on the paper. In computer and video production we define a color in terms of the excitations of red, green and blue phosphors on the CRT faceplate or pickup on a camera's imager. Often in video, values are converted from the RGB color space to either the Y, R-Y, B-Y color space or composite color space for transmission, processing and storage.
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Color Subcarrier

A standard monochrome video signal must have additional modulation frequency bands (sidebands) added in order to convey color information. These are the color subcarrier components. Using the color burst as a reference, the ratio of the color subcarrier of the video signal to the burst indicates the intensity of the colors (in PAL* and NTSC*). Thus, when there are relatively limited color subcarrier components in the video signal, the colors are weak or pale. The system is, in fact, a little more complicated than this since in PAL and NTSC the color subcarrier contains red and blue information simultaneously which must be further processed by a color decoder* in the monitor, to RGB*. The color subcarrier frequency in PAL* is about 4.43 MHz and in NTSC* it is about 3.58 MHz. Since it resides outside the highest luminance frequency, the relevant usable luminance* frequency is limited to about 4 MHz in PAL and to about 3 MHz in NTSC that is when using simple analog filters. The luminance frequency response after separating chrominance from luminance may be much higher when using a Comb Filter*.
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Color Temperature

Indicates the hue* of the color. The term is derived from photography where the spectrum of colors are based upon a comparison with the hues produced when a special metal body is heated from red through yellow to blue, which is the hottest. Color temperature measurements are expressed in degrees Kelvin.
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Colorist

An individual artist who understands color and can interface between a production’s need for color treatment of images and the equipment necessary to accomplish that treatment. Colorists have traditionally worked with telecine film output, and now also work in tape to tape applications in SD and HD.
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Colorization

A process which allows painting a black/white or even a color video image with artificial colors.
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Comb Filter

Circuitry designed for best separation of Y and C from a composite video signal. Standard circuitry uses analog bandpass and bandstop filters, which result in unclean separation of Luma from Chroma, possible phase shifts (hue changes), signal delays and a host of other unwanted effects. Comb filtering is a digital process, separating Y from C, based on "combing" out the chrominance signal from the luminance. It is called comb filtering because chroma resides in specific bands along the frequency axis which resemble a comb. The drawbacks of digital comb filtering are some unwanted effects due to digitization of the video signal, higher cost than analog filters and sometimes the need for time base correction* prior to "combing" in order to obtain the best results.
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commands Palette

A window that contains a list of preset commands. You can customize the palette to define buttons and function keys for fast access to often-used commands.
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Communication Protocol

Software based protocol or language, linking several devices to enable them to communicate one with the other. Communication protocols are used between computers and VCRs or editing controllers allowing bi-directional conversation between the units. The linked units use specific hardware connections in addition to the software and protocol. See also RS-232/RS-422*.
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Component Digital

A digital form of Component Analog signals usually related to CCIR 601* (ITU-R BT. 601-2.)
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Component Video

A video signal where luminance and chrominance signals are kept as separate components for better picture quality. This allows signals to retain detail components and eliminates encoding/decoding artifacts commonly found in composite video.
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Composite Video

composite Video signal the combines luminance and chrominance in a single signal. Less expensive than component video, but lower picture quality
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Composite-Superimpose

To layer multiple tracks onto the Timeline. To composite portions of multiple clips into the final production by overlaying clips with transparent regions to allow the underlying tracks to show through. See also key.
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Compositing

The process of layering multiple video clips. Often includes painting, rotoscoping, keying, color correction, matting, etc as tools to create the multi-layered image.
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compress

To reduce the size of audio or video data through the use of a compression scheme. Also called encode. See also decompress, lossy, and lossless.
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Compression

The process of reducing the bandwidth or data rate in a video or audio signal. Often used with audio and video to reduce storage and transmission costs. Compression techniques common in digital imaging rely on removing both redundant data and data that is deemed less critical or imperceptible to the viewer. This can be done either within a frame (intra-frame compression) or across multiple frames (inter-frame compression). Compression systems are developed to reduce perceptible losses, however most compression systems in use today will exhibit some level of distortion.
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Compression Ratio

The difference between the original amount of data and the amount of data after the bandwidth has been reduced through compression, or the degree to which the data set has been reduced numerically. Usually expressed as a ratio such as 5:1 (5 to 1).
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Compressor

Program by which files are compressed. A compressor that also decompresses files (returns them to their original state) is called a codec. See also compress.
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Conform

Cutting together recorded material according to a prepared scheme such as a rough cut or EDL. EDLs can be used to directly control conforming in an online edit suite (autoconforming).
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Contour

An accentuated edge defining a video or a computer generated image.
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Contrast

Contrast is a function of differences in intensity between the darkest and the brightest areas of a picture. When contrast is high the picture contains sharp blacks and whites. When low, the picture shows only variations in gray tones. Excessive contrast can result from improper illumination or photographing in harsh sunlight. In such a case, it can be corrected using a video processor*. In the same fashion, a low contrast image, which is the result of insufficient illumination, can be enhanced. Very few video processors on the market today offer real contrast control.
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Contrast Mixing

A way of mixing two video images using a special effects generator* or video mixer. While maintaining a fully contrasted image, this process does not allow the mixed image to exceed the maximum permitted amplitude (which would cause degradation in picture quality). Using a quality video mixer, contrast is consistently maintained without the introduction of distortion.
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Coupling

A way to interface between two machines or signals. In video and audio, coupling can be direct - called DC coupling; through capacitors - called AC coupling; using transformers - called inductive coupling; by opto devices - using optocouplers or using RF (radio frequency) transmitters and receivers. DC coupling preserves the original DC levels of the signals and insures maximum signal flatness. However, erroneous DC levels, if they exist, are transferred between the machines and may cause damage. AC coupling practically isolates the two machines or signals from their respective DC components, but has the problem of poor low frequency response and signal breathing effect. For example, video switchers and DAs may have AC or DC coupling either at the inputs, outputs or both. A smart system allows the user to decide which way the signals should be coupled to and from the DA or switcher. Transformer coupling is problematic in the video field, mainly because of bandwidth considerations, as the transformer should perform equally in all relevant frequencies, and magnetic core transformers hardly ever do so, especially when a true flat response is needed. Transformer coupling is used in the audio field mainly for maintaining proper balanced* signals, for impedance matching and for ground isolation - as ground loops may be quite harmful in audio. Opto-coupling in video is mainly used to link up devices in remote locations, by using fiber optics technology instead of coaxial connections, thus extending substantially the range of operation. RF connection is mainly used in radio, TV and cable transmissions, in microwave links - node to node for ENG* and in satellite transmissions. RF modulators* and demodulators are needed to maintain the link. RF offers the longest connection range of all systems, crossing continents, oceans and even outer space.
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CR, CB

Digital red and blue color difference signals.
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Crawl

To scroll a line of title text sideways, left or right across the screen. See also roll.
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Credit

Title text that identifies the people who contributed to a production. Usually scrolled at the end of a show.
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Crop

To make an image physically smaller by trimming away one or more edges. This reduces the dimensions of the image, and reduces the size of the computer file.
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Cross Fading

A term used in video and audio editing* to describe a procedure whereby one signal is gradually faded out while a second signal is faded in until it fully replaces the first signal.
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Cross Planes

A digital video effect showing several images that appear riding on different planes. The planes may be parallel to each other, intersecting, perpendicular or in any other geometric form and relationship. CROSSTALK The interference of one signal by an adjacent one caused by stray electromagnetic or electrostatic energy. In audio, crosstalk results from leakage, for example, between the left and the right channels or between different inputs. In video, crosstalk between input channels can be classified into two basic categories: luminance* /sync* crosstalk and color* (chroma*) crosstalk. When crosstalk in video is too high, images from one source appear as ghosts on the other. Low crosstalk is an essential feature for any audio and video device and is based on accurate design and proper signal handling. Crosstalk risk gets higher with higher signal frequencies.
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Crosstalk

A signal from one stereo channel that bleeds into the other. Also, a signal from a video track on a tape bleeding into the signal on the adjacent track.
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CRT

Cathode Ray Tube. A vacuum tube which produces light when an electron beam hits its internal surface. A "gun" which creates electrons and a high voltage source that accelerates them generate the electron beam. The CRT is used as a picture displaying tube in video monitors, TV sets, computer monitors and others. It is assumed that the CRT will be replaced in the future by flat displays - such as LCD/TFT, Plasma or other modern types.
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CTL

Short for Control Track. A signal recorded on videotape to facilitate proper head positioning for reading the video signal. Often connected to a counter that will increment on every frame of video
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Cut

To switch instantly from one clip to another. A video cut appears suddenly onscreen without any other kind of transition effect. The cut is the most basic kind of transition for changing scenes and dropping titles onto the screen. See also fade, transition.
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CV

Composite Video
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D/A, DAC

Digital to Analog conversion
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D1

A recording format utilizing a 19 mm-wide (3/4") video tape and digital component video signals conforming to the ITU-R BT.601-2 (CCIR 601*) standard.
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D2

A recording format utilizing a 19 mm-wide (3/4") video tape and digital composite video signals conforming to the SMPTE 244M* standard.
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D3

A recording format utilizing a 1/2"-wide video tape and digital composite video signals conforming to the SMPTE 244M* standard.
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D5

A recording format utilizing a 1/2"-wide video tape and digital component video signals.
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D-5HD

A High Definition videotape format developed by Panasonic based on the highly successful D-5 platform for standard definition. It uses 1/2" wide tape stock and records 22:11:11 10 bit HD Video. It uses compression that that reduces the data rate approximately 4:1 to 210Mb/s. The tape format supports 1920x1080 at 23.98P,24P,25P,29.97P, 30P, 50i, 59.94i, and 60i and 1280x720 at 59.94P and 60P. The format became the preferred mastering format for telecine transfers when HD was introduced. D-5HD VTR's are now also capable of 525 or 625 line standard definition, a move towards creating HD equipment that responds to a more universal approach where equipment can be used in both the HD and SD environments
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D9

Another name for Digital-S, the digital s-Video (YC) format.
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DA

Distribution Amplifier. Device that takes a signal in and provides multiple outputs of that signal.
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DAC

Digital to Analog Converter. A device doing the opposite process of an ADC*, converting a digital logic signal back to an analog (linear) signal. The ADC and DAC are widely used nowadays for converting between analog and digital video and audio signals.
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Dalsa Origin

Next generation digital cinematography camera by Dalsa that uses a unique single sensor design to capture motion picture data at up to 4k (4046x2048) resolution. It features an optical viewfinder and can use existing 35mm PL mount lenses
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Data Compression

A process developed for reducing the number of transmitted or stored bits of information with minimal effect on data or signal quality. Several algorithms (software formulas) as well as specific hardware devices are used for data compression, each with its own drawbacks and advantages. The right system should be selected to suit the specific needs of the user.
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Data Rate

The speed at which data is transferred, as in bytes per second. Also called bit rate. For example, the speed to download or stream a video file over the Internet, or the speed at which the file must play from a hard disk. When you create a video or audio file, you can specify the target bit rate at which the file will be played. Also called bit rate. See also bandwidth.
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Data Superimposition

Use of computer generated red, green and blue data in video applications. Data superimposition over a video signal is carried out by high quality color decoders* which convert an analog* composite or Y/C video signal to RGB* signals. The computer generated data, which is genlocked* to the video source, is superimposed on the analog RGB signal, by using a special key or strobe input. The signal can then be re-encoded to re-establish the composite or Y/C video signal, now including the computer data (graphics, text, etc.)
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DBS

Direct Broadcast Satellite. Also known as DTH - Direct to Home. A satellite transmission system received directly at the consumer's home.
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D-Cinema

Digital Cinema. Digital distribution and projection of cinematic material. Advances in digital video technology, digital video projectors, and new methods of duplication and distribution are coming together to offer a new distribution model that doesn’t involve film prints.
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DCT

Discrete Cosine Transform. One of the algorithms (software formulas) used in data compression*. This algorithm is widely used in image and movie compression (JPEG* and MPEG*).
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DDC

Short form for Display Data Channel. It is a VESA standard for communication between a monitor and a video adapter. Using DDC, a monitor can inform the video card about its properties, such as maximum resolution and color depth. The video card can then use this information to ensure that the user is presented with valid options for configuring the display.
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DDWG

Digital Display Working Group DDWG are the creators of the DVI specification.
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Decimation

A digital method for "eliminating" redundant pixels in an image. The process is widely used for image scaling and for oversampled ADC's*. If every second pixel is stored in a digital image storing apparatus, the decimation factor is 2, and the image size occupies only one quarter of the original size. Decimation of a high order deteriorates the signal and unwanted artifacts are added to the picture, whether it is a video or still picture.
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Decimation Filter

A filter built in decimation* circuitry designed to reduce or eliminate the unwanted effects of the decimation process.
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decompress

-- To process a compressed bitstream and recover the original data (if lossless compression), or an approximation of the original (if lossy compression). Also called decode. See also compress.
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Definition Of A Picture

The aggregate of fine details available on the screen. The higher the definition of the picture, the greater the number of fine details that can be recognized on the screen. The fine details of a picture appear in the highest frequency region of the signal. As a result of the limited frequency response* of magnetic tapes and the electronic circuitry employed in the recording process, the high frequency part of the video spectrum is often attenuated. Therefore, during analog video recording, picture definition is frequently lost or impaired. This creates a loss of fine details and blurs the picture. Each additional generation* of a copy of an analog videotape results in fewer and fewer fine details as losses are accumulated. Digital videotapes, due to the nature of digital storage technique, are far less sensitive to this problem. To overcome definition loss, the use of video enhancers* is recommended. However, low quality video enhancing,* while trying to cure the definition loss problem, generates excessive noise* (snow* on the screen) and the advantages of enhancing are lost. A high quality image enhancer uses a noise gate* to limit the snow and noise* and produces a sharp image with minimal snow.
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Deinterlace

To process interlaced television video, in which each frame contains alternating pairs of lines from two separate fields captured at slightly different times. The motion between fields can cause visible tearing when displayed on a computer monitor. Deinterlacing uses every other line from one field and interpolates new in-between lines without tearing. See also interlace, NTSC.
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Delay Correction

When an electronic signal travels through electronic circuitry or through a coaxial cable, delay problems may occur. The result of the delay in video is usually a blurred (ghostly, shadowed) image and special electronic circuitry is needed to correct it.
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Demultiplexer (demux)

An electronic device for separating several signals, which were combined by a device named multiplexer*. In the digital-signal world for example, Demultiplexers separate digital video from digital audio, which were combined by time division multiplexing (TDM)*.
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Depth of Field

Depth of field is a term which refers to the areas of a picture both in front and behind the main focus point which remain "sharp" (in focus). Depth of field is affected by the aperture, subject distance, imager or negative size, and focal length.
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Differential Gain

A measure of non-linearity related to a composite video signal amplifier/processor. It is measured by comparing two initially equal amplitudes of chrominance signals riding on two different luminance levels. The inaccuracy is measured as a percentage.
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Differential Phase

A measure of non-linearity related to a composite video signal amplifier/processor. It is measured by comparing two initially equal phases of chrominance signals riding on two different luminance levels. The inaccuracy is measured in degrees.
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Digital

Describes a signal that is represented by discrete units. Commonly used to describe equipment or methods that involve processing, storage, and distribution of a signal as binary data.
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DIGITAL COAX (S/Pdif)

a digital audio connection mainly used in computers and older home theater systems.
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Digital Disk Recorder

A relatively new system, mainly intended for post-production* purposes, for recording short scenes on a digital disk (such as a computer hard drive). The advantages of this system for editing purposes are extremely fast access to any point on the disk, elimination of dropout* and very fast back and forth shuttle speed. Several digital formats of data storage exist, developed specifically for disk recorders, though without a universal, agreed upon, standard. Video editing which uses a hard disk for storage is sometimes called Non-Linear editing (non-analog).
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Digital Intermediate (DI)

A Digital Intermediate is the result of the process of shooting Highdef, or shooting on film followed by scanning to film quality data files, editing the project in High Definition, and applying the creative process of color correction and color treatment to the completed master. This Digital Intermediate then becomes the master for video, DVD or for theatrical output by transferring this data master back to film. The big advantage over the conventional method is in the creative process. Once you have scanned your feature to a data master you have the same creative ability and freedom that is available when mastering a television movie or high end television commercial. Creative decisions on effects like speed ramps, freeze frames, dissolves, dips to color, wipes, multi layers and re-use of material are all very simple. Most "optical" effects are part of the automatic conforming process in online editing. Trailers can be cut from actual film footage because the original film now exists in an HD digital format.
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Digital Television (DTV)

Refers to transmitting a broadcast signal that consists of digital data. The ATSC has allowed for both standard definition and high definition programs transmitted in a digital form to be considered DTV.
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Digital Utility

Crew member as designated by Local 600, IATSE. Additional hire: cable wrangling of cables connected to the camera, under supervision of the DIT, first or second camera assistant or camera utility.
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Digital-s

A digital video format introduced by JVC(tm). This format is "back" compatible with the S-VHS* format so cassettes recorded in S-VHS can be used with a DIGITAL-S VCR. The technical specifications are very similar to the DVCPRO* format - 4:2:2 encoding, 3.3:1 DCT* compression and a 50 Mbits/sec data rate. The cassette lasts for 104 minutes and is 0.5 inch wide.
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D-ILAä

Digital Image Light Amplifier. JVC’s proprietary projection display technology which uses a reflective-mode active matrix liquid crystal display to control the light output. D-ILA technology has produced digital projectors with 2k resolutions at high brightness and contrast ratios.
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DIN

Deutsche Industrie Norme. A German based standardization system, adopted by other countries as well. The DIN standard connectors for example, are very popular on video and audio equipment.
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Direct Broadcasting via Satellite (DBS)

Consumers receive programs directly from a satellite source. Typically, a DBS home systems consists of a pizza-sized dish that is locked onto one satellite source, and a “set-top box” that decodes the compressed satellite signal for display on a standard television.
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Director’s Friend

A company that manufactures computer-based HDTV interface, Often synonymous with one of their products the “df-cineHD” which provides mobile digital cinema capture, color correction, and edit suite capabilities.
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Dissolve

A video transition in which one video clip fades into the next. See also fade, transition.
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Distortion

In audio, this term implies undesired changes in the waveform of a signal caused by the introduction of spurious elements. When a pure sine signal is fed into an amplifier and comes out harmonized, additional tones are created, naturally related to the original tone. This upsets the relationship between a specific tone and other tones related to it. In audio there are several distortion patterns - harmonic distortion, crossover distortion, transient distortion and intermodulation distortion. No matter what the type is, the result is unpleasant to the ear. Video distortion, like audio distortion, is the result of improper signal handling during video amplifying and processing. Video signal distortion effects the luminance* or chrominance* portions of the signal. It may distort the picture and produce improper contrast*, faulty luminance levels, twisted images, erroneous colors and snow*. The goal of a good video processor*, is, as in audio, to be a "wire with amplification" device which does not unnecessarily affect the brightness, contrast and tonal quality of the image.
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Distribution Amplifier

A device which distributes one video and/or audio source to several video/audio acceptors for simultaneous recording or monitoring. A good quality distribution amplifier amplifies the incoming signal (video and audio), pre-compensates the signal for potential losses (resulting from the use of long cables, for example) and generates several identical buffered and amplified outputs. Distribution amplifiers are mainly used in duplication studios where many copies of a tape must be simultaneously generated from one source. Often, a video processor* is inserted between the source and the distribution amplifier for correction and fine-tuning of the source signal before multiplication, so that all copies are corrected in the same way.
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DIT

A Digital Imaging Technician. A designation of Local 600, IATSE, the cinematographer’s guild. Advanced coloring (controller duties); setup, operation, troubleshooting and maintenance of digital cameras (oversight of camera utilities), waveform monitors, downconverters (Highdef to other formats), monitors, cables, digital recording devices, terminal equipment, driver software and other related equipment. Complete understanding of digital audio acquisition and timecode process and how they are integrated into digital acquisition format and post production environments. Also responsible for in-camera recording. Supervisory responsibility for technical acceptability of the image.
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DLP

Texas Instruments Inc. Digital Light Processing technology, the projection and display technology which uses Digital Micromirror Devices (DMD’s) to control the light output. DLP technology enables very compact, high brightness, high-resolution digital projectors.
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Downconversion

The process of converting high resolution video to lower resolution video. Often done to high definition camera reels so that programs can be offlined on inexpensive standard definition editing systems before being conformed in High Definition. Also done to finished HD programs for delivery to non-HD clients.
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Downstream Keying

One of the special effects* employed by a special effects generator*. A video picture is painted with natural or with artificial colors produced by the special effects generator as a function of its brightness. A washed-out sky can be painted to a brilliant red. Colors are streamed down from brightest to darkest and any level of brightness can be changed down to any darker level.
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DPX

Digital Moving-Picture Exchange. A file format specified by SMPTE that contains information about an image as well as the image itself.
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DR, DB

Color difference related signals for the SECAM system color modulation.
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Drop Shadow

A special effect, which adds an artificial shadow or a three-dimensional, extruded shadow to a scene or an inserted object. This effect is used also in titling in order to emphasize the inserted titles.
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Drop-Frame

Alteration of timecode to match the framerate of NTSC video to a time of day clock. NTSC video actually runs at 29.97 frames per second (30/1.001). To keep the timecode on an NTSC videotape synchronous with a time of day clock, it needs to make up 1 in 1001 frames. It does this by changing the count by two frames on nine out of every ten minutes. So the frame following 10:35:59:29 would be numbered as 10:36:00:02. 30 frame HD formats are often run at 29.97 to allow conversion and synchronization to NTSC video. These formats support Drop-Frame timecode. Note that there is no drop frame format for native 24-frame video formats. Also see Non-Drop-Frame, Timecode.
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Dropout

Partial loss of a video picture, usually seen on the screen as white streaks, resulting in a poor quality playback. Flaws in magnetic tape coating resulting in loss of magnetic particles from the tape are the main cause of dropout. Special electronic equipment is needed to eliminate dropout effects, usually digitally based, named dropout compensators. Normally, a dropout compensator replaces the missing information due to drop out with data from adjacent pixels, lines or fields.
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DTV

Digital Television. The proposed standard for digital video broadcasting in the US and Canada. The system is based on MPEG-2 and is similar to the DVB system in most respects.
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Dub

To duplicate or make a copy of a production, traditionally from one tape (usually a master tape) to another tape.
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Duration

A length of time. For a clip, the length of time that it will play, determined by its overall length. Or if the clip has been trimmed, the difference in time between its In point and Out point. See also timecode.
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DV

Digital Video, Refers to a video tape format primarily designed for the consumer market that records a 4:1:1 standard definition signal with a 5:1 compression ratio for a total bitrate of 25Mb/s. DV cassettes come in 2 sizes Standard and Mini. Audio can be either 48khz 16 bit stereo or 32kHz 12 bit 4 channel.
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DV

A Digital Video tape and compression format for consumer and professional video equipment. The DV compression format is used for DV and Digital-8 camcorders. DV format video and audio can be captured using a FireWire / IEEE 1394 interface and then saved and edited in a video editor. The consumer tape format is more accurately called mini-DV. See also analog media.
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DVB

Digital Video Broadcast. The system proposed for digital video broadcast in Europe and is similar to analog TV broadcast. The system is based on satellite transmission, ground-based receivers and the video signal is MPEG-2* encoded.
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DVC

Digital Video Cassette. A domestic and professional cassette format. DVC cassettes come in two sizes- mini-sized or regular sized for camera or desktop VCR use. The mini-sized cassette (6.35mm) can be played directly from the desktop VCR without using adapters. Sometimes, the mini cassettes have a memory chip built-in. Resolutions up to 500 lines are achievable.
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DVCam

A digital video format introduced by SONY(tm). This format uses DV* like cassettes, has a 4:1:1 encoding scheme and outputs a 25Mbits/sec data rate. Cassettes come in two sizes- 46 minutes for field use and 180 minutes for desktop VCRs.
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DVCPro

A digital component video format introduced by Panasonic(tm) and Philips BTS(tm). The format uses two cassette sizes- 6.35mm and 0.5 inch. It provides a stream of digital information @ 25 Mbits/sec and has two uncompressed audio channels. It operated initially at 4:1:1 encoding and 5:1 DCT* compression, but was recently re-introduced at 4:2:2 encoding and a lower, 3:3:1, rate of compression. This has changed the amount of time that can be recorded on tape from 123 minutes for the desktop DVCPRO VCR operating at 4:1:1 to 61.5 minutes at 4:2:2.
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DVCProHD / DVCProHD-EX

A High Definition videotape format developed by Panasonic. It uses 1/4" wide tape stock and records 22:11:11 8 bit HD Video. It uses an extension of the DV compression and recording system to reduce the data rate to 100Mb/s. The tape format supports 1920x1080 at 59.94i, and 60i and 1280x720 at 59.94P and 60P. The Panasonic’s Varicam format uses the 1280x720 DVCProHD format to carry variable framerate information. DVCProHD-EX is an extension of the DVCProHD format and is able to record and playback upto 126 minutes of HD video on a single cassette
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DVD

Digital Versatile Disk, Disk of the size of a CD, but with a storage capacity of up to 17 Gbyte. The single layer one side DVD stores up to 4.7 Gbyte, more then eight time as much as on a CD. It is an ideal media for video and multi channel audio applications. The term DVD has become synonymous with DVD-Video, which holds MPEG-2 compressed video, multichannel audio, subtitles, menus, and other features onto a DVD disk for playback in industry standard players.
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DVE

Digital Video Effects. Special effects generators* which employ digital signal processing to create two or three dimensional digital wipe effects, where for example, the image can be rolled out of the screen, broken into tiny pieces or converted into a tube-like picture.
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DVHS

A digital tape format developed by JVC based on the VHS tape transport. Most commonly used for HD delivery, it supports MPEG2 encoded video at rates up to 25Mb/s. There are currently 3 different types of DVHS tapes. D-Theater DVHS tapes are recorded with a special copy protection system for wide release of high definition content. Pro-HD DVHS offers the ability to record and playback in a password-protected mode for playback on Pro-HD DVHS equipment, giving content providers the ability to protect their material (this feature is often used for "Digital Dailies"). Pro-HD equipment will also playback D-Theater and Consumer DVHS tapes. Consumer DVHS offers recording and playback of non-copy-protected and off-the-air material and playback of D-Theater titles.
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DVI

Digital Video Interface. Used in Multimedia applications, where computer generated text and graphics are merged into a video production, for educational, advertising and post-production purposes. DVI-A is nothing but RGBHV in a funny connector, transferring analog video. DVI-I is not really a signal type, but refers to a connector type which combines DVI-A and DVI-D. DVI-D is a parallel digital standard, primarily used in computer monitors and Other Home Entertainment type video displays.
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DVI

Digital Visual Interface. Connection standard developed by Intel for connecting computers to digital monitors such as flat panels and DLP projectors. A consumer electronics version, not necessarily compatible with the PC version, is used as a connection standard for HDTV tuners and displays. Transmits an uncompressed digital signal to the display. The latter version uses HDCP copy protection to prevent unauthorized copying.
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EAV

End of Active Video. A digital code used with digital component video signals, marking the end of a video line.
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EBU

European Broadcasting Union. A European organization of broadcasters which among other activities, defines recommendations and statements for the 625/50 line television system.
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Edge crop

A technique of showing just the center portions of a wider aspect ratio format. The resulting effect of edge cropping is the loss of the outer edges of the picture.
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Edge Enhancing

See Enhancing.
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EDH

Error Detecting and Handling. A system employing codes inserted in a digital video signal in order to detect possible errors and error rates.
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Edit Line

The current editing point in the Timeline, as displayed in the Monitor window and used for inserts and deletes. Often shown by a triangle control in the time ruler with a vertical line down through the Timeline tracks.
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Editing Controller

A system to control and synchronize several VTRs, audio tape recorders and other accessories during postproduction*. An editing controller uses a dedicated computer, which is built into the controller.
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EDL

Edit Decision List. A list that describes with tape names and timecode numbers how to assemble a program from the original tapes. Includes timecode numbers representing the IN and OUT points, (Beginnings and Ends) of every shot of a complete program.
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EDTV

Enhanced Definition Television. A television that is capable of accepting any HDTV signal, but is capable of displaying resolutions up to 480P (640X480 if it’s 4:3 and 852X480 if it’s 16X9) thus resulting in not as sharp nor as vibrant picture as HDTV, but still much sharper than SDTV and compatible with digital signal.
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Effect

The result of processing audio and video clips to enhance, improve, or distort them. See also filter.
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Effects Control Palette

A window that lists the current effects applied to an audio or video clip. Used to adjust the order of effects and change effect settings.
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EGA (enhanced Graphics Adapter)

An obsolete digital color standard developed by IBM(tm) for personal computers which was able to display 16 out of a menu of 64 colors at any given moment, at resolutions up to 640 x 350 lines. EGA was used on personal computers for desktop publishing applications, high-resolution CAD programs or other programs where high-resolution, multicolored graphics were required. Several years later this standard was replaced by VGA*, Super-VGA* and XGA.
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EIA

Electronic Industries Association. An association of manufacturers in the electronic industry having common interests.
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EIA Color Bars

A test color bar signal similar to the SMPTE bars.
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Eight Millimeter Video

A highly popular video system for recording and playback* of video images on an 8-mm wide magnetic tape. The advantages of 8-mm systems are flexibility, lightweight cameras, reduced storage space for tapes and the high quality of 8-mm.
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Electronic Color Filter

Circuitry used in video processing which imitates the colored glass filters used in photography. Various color signals are generated and then mixed in different proportions with the video signal. This permits the operator to introduce color changes in the video scene for color correction or special effects generation.
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Encoding (color)

A process which translates several signals of information simultaneously from an analog or digital form to a coded form, without an apparent loss of image quality. An encoder usually accepts RGB* or YUV* inputs from either an analog or a digital source and converts these signals to a full-colored composite or Y/C video signal. In essence this device performs the opposite of a color decoder.
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ENG

Electronic News Gathering. A process of recording news events by using electronic cameras and recorders (non-film).
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Enhancing (video Image)

Improving a video image by boosting high frequency or other signals which are lost during recording. There are several types of enhancing. Luminance enhancing takes place mainly in the border areas between light and dark images. The transition edge between the light and dark areas are extenuated. When there is a light area on the screen located on a dark background, the edge of the left part of the area becomes lighter and the right side becomes darker. In double-edge enhancing, all the edges surrounding the area become enhanced and the enhanced area itself becomes, in effect, three-dimensional looking. Chrominance enhancing improves color saturation and restores normal hue.
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EPS

Encapsulated PostScript. The PostScript format and language is a trademark of Adobe Systems Inc(tm). It is a page description and typesetting language, widely used in typesetting and desktop publishing systems. The EPS format is a postscript description file format, easily transferable between various graphics programs.
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Equalizing Pulses

Synchronization pulses of double frequency and of short period leading and following the vertical sync. Proper equalizing pulses are needed for picture stability on the screen, for proper vertical deflection, interlacing* and for PAL* switch generation. Missing or distorted equalizing pulses can cause misalignment of the video image on the screen, skewing* effect, color distortion and loss.
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Eureka

A European technological developments project, which defined the HDTV standard.
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Export

To save your production to a file or to an external video device. You can export both individual clips and entire productions on the Timeline to a variety of disk and Web media file formats. See also import.
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Fade

A gradual transition from one clip to another. With video, the clip changes from transparent to fully opaque (or vice versa) to fade in or out. With audio, the gain changes between silence and full volume.
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Fading

In video, fading deliberately diminishes the video picture until it becomes totally black. Fading a video image is often used as an artistic tool in video productions. For example, gradually replacing one scene with another by crossfading*. In audio, fading decreases the level of the signal until it is no longer heard. Audio fading is often used together with video fading. The sound and image disappear simultaneously.
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FCC

Federal Communications Commission. An American governmental authority, which sets rules, related to communication, electric interference, etc.
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F-Connector

The standard connector used with coaxial cable and the RF inputs/outputs of most video equipment. Commonly known as RG-6.
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Field

For interlaced video sources, a full frame is constructed from alternating odd and even lines from two video fields captured at slightly different times. See also interlaced video
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Film Out

Term describing a “Tape to Film” transfer.
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Film Scanner

Usually refers to a high resolution Film to Data device that does not operate at “real time” (ie at least 24 frames per second). Also see Telecine.
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Filter

A transformation applied to a video or audio clip to enhance it or create a visual or auditory effect. See also effect.
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Final Cut Pro HD

Version 4.5 of Apple’s Final Cut Pro software with High Def and Standard Def editing capability.  Final Cut Pro HD features built in support for Panasonic's DVCProHD codec.  Native DVCProHD coded material (100Mb/s) can be captured via Firewire (from a Firewire enabled deck), and uncompressed HD I/O is achieved using a number of other hardware manufacturers HD capture cards.
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Firewire (ilink)

A recommendation for a fast universal interface and protocol developed by Apple(tm) and published by the Institute of the Electrical and Electronics Engineers, also called Firewire (iLINK). This standard allows fast interfacing between digital cameras, VCRs, CD-ROMs, hard disks, scanners, graphics cards and editing systems. Data rates of 100Mbit/sec are easily obtained by this standard as well as fast and accurate audio/video synchronization. This standard allows "hot swapping" inputs and outputs, adding to its versatility. Firewire is catching on rapidly in the professional video market due to its simplicity, versatility and the ability to easily interconnect video and computer hardware.
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FireWire connector

A roughly rectangular, hot-pluggable connector used for FireWire/IEEE 1394 digital connections, especially digital video signals such as from DV camcorders. The connectors can vary in size: full-size (6-pin) for connecting to a computer or hub, and smaller (4-pin) for connecting to equipment such as DV camcorders. See also BNC connector, DV, F connector, RCA connector, S-Video connector.
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FLI/FLC

Animation flick files created by Autodesk(tm) software, such as Animator(tm) or Animator Pro. The FLI/FLC file system contains a series of consecutive compressed frames or images that can be replayed as an animation sequence using a special program. This format is widely used in computer generated animations and in clips used for video.
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Flicker

Annoying visual phenomena mainly related to the interlacing of video fields, which show up as small vibrations on the screen. Flicker also appears when static images are displayed on the screen, as in computer generated text when transferred to video. Poor digital image treatment, as in low priced standards converters (going between PAL to NTSC), will create an annoying flicker on the screen. There are several electronic techniques to minimize flicker, such as line averaging and filtering.
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Format (video)

There is an enormous variety of video formats. They vary in tape width - 4mm, 8mm, 1/2 inch, 3/4 inch, 1 inch, etc.; in signal formats - composite, YC and component video; and in operation - analog or digital. In addition, digital formats themselves take various forms - no single standard prevails. Also, all formats exist in PAL, NTSC and SECAM and their sub-standards, which implies that any video production studio requires an extensive range of interface devices to enable equipment designed for a specific format to work with devices designed for other formats.
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Four Fsc (4fsc)

The sampling rate of composite video signals as a multiple of color subcarrier* frequency. In PAL 4Fsc is about 17.73 MHz and in NTSC it is about 14.31MHz.
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Four:four:four (4:4:4)

A term used in digital component video formats and interfaces. The term describes 3 full bandwidth channels, like R, G, B, each being digitized at 4Fsc*.
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Four:two:two (4:2:2)

A term used in digital component video formats and interfaces. 4:2:2 states the ratio of the sampling rate of the luminance channel (it was 4xFsc*, and is now 13.5 Ms/s) to the rate of sampling of the two color difference signals (it was 2xFsc each, and is now 6.75 Ms/s). Sampling the color information at lower rates is allowed due to the limited bandwidth of color information. This is one of the formats of the CCIR 601 recommendations.
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Four:zero:zero (4:0:0)

A monochrome video format, mainly used for key signals in a video production studio.
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Four-Point Edit

A method of setting In and Out points to precisely control where and how frames are inserted into a Timeline. In a four-point edit, you set all four In and Out markers, and the editor displays a warning dialog if the durations do not match. See also three-point edit.
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Frame

One complete video picture, comprising both odd and even fields. There are 30 video frames per second.
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Frame Grabber

An electronic device that captures a video frame or field and stores it on a digital storage device, e.g., hard disk, memory card, floppy disk etc.
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Frame Rate

Used to describe the number of times per second that a complete picture is updated in an imaging system. In a progressive system the frame rate equals the capture rate. In an interlaced system, the frame rate is one half of the capture rate. Also see Capture Rate, Interlace Imaging, Progressive Imaging.
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Frame Synchronizer

An electronic device utilizing digital technology, with several video inputs. The Frame Synchronizer synchronizes and genlocks* sync and color of one input to those of another. After frame synchronization, the two video images can be blended, wiped and processed as they use the same sync and color subcarrier frequencies and the same phase. See also TBC*.
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Frames

The individual video images that make up a moving sequence. Video formats and individual clips are typically described in terms of the resolution of the individual frames, and the frame rate at which they are played. See also frame rate, field.
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Freeze Frame

A technique in which a particular frame of video is held onscreen. Sometimes the audio portion of the scene continues playing.
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Frequency Modulation

When a low frequency signal modulates (changes) the frequency of an RF signal of a much higher frequency (causing it to move around the basic carrier frequency) - the processed is called frequency modulation or FM. This system in extensively used in broadcast radio transmission, as it retains high signal quality. FM is used in video to record signals on videotape. The FM system is less prone to interference and is therefore used in higher quality equipment.
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Frequency Response

The maximal signal bandwidth handled by an electronic device, which is a measure of the quality of reproduction of various or extreme frequencies within the band. If the frequency response of a video processor, for example, is adequate, there is no discernable deterioration in picture quality at the edges of the spectrum and no fine details or color are lost. In Hi-Fi audio reproduction, frequency response should extend up to 20,000 Hz, the practical limit of human hearing. The frequency response plot not only measures the extreme edges of the frequencies handled but also linearity and fidelity throughout the whole spectrum.
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Frequency Synthesis

A term used in radio frequency transmissions for the generation of a stabilized high frequency signal. The frequency steps are derived from the crystal-stabilized frequency standard. Using a chain of switches, a wide range of high frequency signals can be generated from the same low frequency crystal oscillator. This process is mainly used in complex broadcast equipment for RF* modulation and transmission.
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Front Porch

A part of the composite video signal which resides in the blanking period, between the end of the active line (the leading edge of the horizontal blanking period) and the leading edge of the horizontal sync.
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Gamma

A display setting related to the brightness of the middle tones of an image. You can adjust the gamma of an image to lighten or darken the midtones (the middle-gray levels), without significantly changing the dark and light areas (the shadows and highlights).
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Gamma Correction

A process used in video and computer graphics images mainly to correct internal microcontrast* within the image and brightness. For example, Gamma correction can change the ratio in an image between the brightest, specific color component, to the weakest.A process used in video and computer graphics images mainly to correct internal microcontrast* within the image and brightness. For example, Gamma correction can change the ratio in an image between the brightest, specific color component, to the weakest.
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Gamut

A color gamut is the boundary of a color space. Colors outside the gamut of a specific color space are considered "illegal" for that color space even though they may be well within the gamut of a different color space. See Color Space, Legal Gamut, Valid Gamut.
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Ganged Fading

When two signals, such as audio and video signals, are concurrently processed, simultaneous fading* is required. This technique is known as ganged fading.
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Garbage Matte

A mask used in a keying operation to remove a region of a frame that contains unwanted objects.
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Gardient

Gradual change from one color (or intensity level) to another. Gradient colors can also become opaque or transparent, varying in translucency from one side to the other.
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GB

Gigabytes (billions of bytes). In computer use, a gigabyte actually represents the closest binary power of 2 to a billion, or 1024 cubed. In general use in advertising DVD disc capacity, however, the number of "GB" is actually used to specify a different value, a billion decimal. See also byte, KB, MB.
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GEM

A graphics metafile format, vector based, which was developed by Digital Research(tm) and is used in DTP and graphics applications.
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Generation

The number of duplication steps between a master recording of videotape and a given copy of that master. A second-generation duplication is a copy of a copy of the original master.
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Generation Loss

When master analog videotape is duplicated, the second-generation copy is usually inferior in quality to the master. This depreciation, known as generation loss, appears as distortion*, lack of details, improper colors, etc. The limited frequency response* of video and audio magnetic tapes and the imperfections in electronic circuitry are the main causes of generation loss. Video enhancing* equipment is intended to eliminate or reduce generation loss. High quality video processors pre-enhance the video signal to overcome generation loss. Digital video recording and editing are essentially immune to high frequency generation loss, but are prone to instability and other synchronization-related problems.
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Genlocking

A system of synchronizing two video signals to the same timing and color phase in order to coordinate their colors and syncs. Genlocking permits mixing*, cross fading*, keying and special effects* generation between the two signals. A video camera* can be genlocked to a second camera through the Genlock connector on the camera. All professional cameras have genlocking capabilities. Genlocking two VCRs is more difficult and requires the intervention of a sophisticated device called a time base corrector* (TBC) or a Framer synchronizer*.
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GIF

Acronym for Graphics Interchange Format. A still image file format commonly used on web pages for simple illustrations and animations. Use the JPEG format for photographic images.
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Graphic File Format

Graphic images, whether computer generated or video generated can be stored on a disk for further use employing one of the standard storage formats. There are several formats, each with its advantages and disadvantages. The user should decide which format is best for his purposes by comparing the features of the formats available. Some popular formats used are - TIFF*, GIF*, TARGA*, PCX*, EPS*, JPEG* and others.
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Graphics Co-processor / Accelerator

A special, dedicated microprocessor installed in a computer graphics card, which takes over most of the graphics work from the main computer microprocessor. As the graphics co-processor deals only with graphics work, the speed of graphics operation is substantially accelerated, which is necessary for computer generated animation* and fast computer graphics display. Nowadays, "3D" graphics processors with many-megabyte graphics RAM (memory) exist on almost every graphics card, enhancing and accelerating 3D PC games as well as any other PC graphics work.
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Graphics Program

A computer program than can create and display symbols, drawing and text on a computer monitor. Special hardware can convert the computer graphic files from such a program into video signals. This permits the graphic material to be added to a video presentation for special effects* generation, editing, etc.
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Ground Loop

Interference that in video may show on the screen as "crawling" vertical bars. A ground loop is created when two elements in a circuit or two different machines connected together receive their ground reference signal from different places. A different ground potential (voltage) creates this loop, interfering with the signal. Special ground-isolation devices are needed to cure the problem. Ground loops are also a problem in audio, where their most disturbing effect is a low frequency oscillation known as "hum" or "motorcycling". Some audio related ground loop problems can be cured by properly reconnecting the ground leading cables to a single point, usually at the most sensitive input area, or at the power supply. Such problems mainly emerge when high amplification is needed, such as when microphones or other sensitive pick-ups are connected to the system.
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Group Delay

A phenomenon occurring in poorly designed electronic equipment where there is a variable delay in the transmission of information through the circuit. In video, when several signals are transmitted together and some arrive ahead of others as a result of group delay, the video picture is distorted. For example, in low quality video processors, there may be a substantial delay between the transmission of color and black and white information. The color part does not overlap on the black and white part and a double image or shadows occur. Good quality video processors automatically compensate for group delay. Group delay may also be invoked in long connecting cables or RF* transmission.
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Hard Disk

A mass storage media for digital information used in computers, video and audio. In contrast to a floppy disk*, the Hard Disk is usually non-removable (though there are already some removable and transportable Hard Disks). The access time of a Hard disk is much shorter than that of a floppy disk, and the amount of data (images or full video-scenes, for example) that can be stored on a large disk can reach several gigabytes (thousands of megabytes). The name Hard Disk comes from its internal construction of metal (mainly aluminum) platters, which are very stiff, and not floppy.
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HD

Short for High Definition.
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HDCAM Format

A High Definition videotape format developed by Sony. It uses 1/2" wide tape stock and records 22:11:11 8 bit HD Video. It uses prefiltering and compression that together reduce the data rate approximately 7:1 to 140Mb/s. The tape format supports 1920x1080 at 23.98P,24P,25P,29.97P, 30P, 50i, 59.94i, and 60i.
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HDCAM SR Format

A next generation High Definition videotape format developed by Sony. It uses a 1/2" wide tape stock and can record either 22:22:22 10bit HD video, 22:11:11 10bit HD Video, or a special double speed mode for 2 channels of 22:11:11 10 bit HD Video. It uses a light compression scheme to reduce the data rate 2.7:1 (for 22:11:11) to approximately 440Mb/s.
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HDCP

High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection. Created by Intel, HDCP is used with HDTV signals over DVI and HDMI connections and on D-Theater D-VHS recordings to prevent unauthorized duplication of copy written material.
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HDMI

The High-Definition Multi-media Interface (HDMI) is DVI-D + multi-channel audio, used mainly in Home Entertainment equipment. HDMI is an industry-supported, uncompressed, all-digital audio/video interface. HDMI provides an interface between any compatible digital audio/video source, such as a set-top box, DVD player, and A/V receiver and a compatible digital audio and/or video monitor, such as a digital television (DTV).
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HD-SDI

High Definition Serial Digital Interface. This standard transmits audio and video over a single coaxial cable with a data rate of 1.485 Gbit/s.
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HDTV

High-Definition Television. The high-resolution subset of our DTV system. The ATSC defines HDTV as a 16:9 image with twice the horizontal and vertical resolution of our existing system, accompanied by 5.1 channels of Dolby Digital audio. The CEA defines HDTV as an image with 720 progressive or 1080 interlaced active (top to bottom) scan lines. 1280:720p and 1920:1080i are typically accepted as high-definition scan rates.
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HDV

A format which uses DV cassette tapes for recording and playback of high-definition video. The HDV format includes 720p (progressive) and 1080i (interlace) specifications. The HDV format specifies the data recording of MPEG2 inter-frame compressed high-definition signals at either 19Mb/s or 25Mb/s.
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Helical Scan

A method of recording video information on VCR tapes. The tape is scanned in a helical (slanted) way rather than horizontally or vertically. The helical scan method packs much more information on a given length of magnetic tape than all other methods. For this reason this method is used in the digital world as well - in DAT* and in digital video systems.
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Hi-8

A Y/C video format similar to Super-VHS, introduced by SONY(tm), using 8mm wide videotapes. Picture quality is very high and camcorders using this format are very small and handy, making them a very good choice for amateur and semi-pro video photographers.
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Hi-color

An advanced computer graphics format, beyond VGA* and Super-VGA*, which displays 32,000 or 64,000 simultaneous colors on the screen at 640x480 pixels resolution and above. This number of shades of color, simultaneously displayed on the screen, exceeds the color resolution of the human eye, which can resolve about 4,000 different shades of color. True color displays 16.7 million shades of color (24-bit color information).
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High Definition Television (HDTV)

A digital television system in which the quality is much better than that of existing NTSC (or PAL) systems
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Hiss

The primary background noise* in audio recording, stemming from circuit noise in the amplifiers of the playback* recorder or from residual magnetism on the tape. Several noise reduction* methods are available, such as Dolby(tm), DNR (Dynamic Noise Reduction), DNL (Dynamic Noise Limiter), etc., to reduce the hiss while still retaining full signal bandwidth. In video transmission, hiss or high frequency noise show as snow* on the screen.
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History Palette

A window that displays a list of your recent actions during the current working session. Used to undo recent operations and return to a previous state of the project
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Horizontal And Vertical Sync Pulses

The horizontal sync* signal is a short pulse at the beginning of each video line which keeps the horizontal scanning of the monitor exactly in step with the transmission of each new line. The vertical sync signal is a pulse transmitted at the beginning of each field and frame. Its purpose is to maintain the monitor in field-by-field synchronization with transmission of the next frame pulse. Sync signals reside in a part of the video signal in which no visual picture information is transmitted. During that particular part of the transmission (the blanking retrace period* or vertical interval*), the electronic beam is blanked and retraces back to the other side of the screen to start a new line or a new frame. Both horizontal and vertical sync are needed to have a fully stable picture.
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Horizontal Tilt

A line-time distortion, tilting the edge of a white bar. The phenomenon shows on the screen as white or black streaks, bleeding away from the original position, creating a muddy, fuzzy image on the screen. It is a result of the poor low frequency response of an amplifier, (see Vertical tilt.) Horizontal Tilt should not be greater than 0.5% in professional applications.
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HSI

Hue, Saturation and Intensity. This is a color space* (a way to represent color) that describes an image. This measure uses polar coordinates. RGB color space is based on a Cartesian coordinate system.
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HSL

Hue, Saturation and Lightness. A measure similar to HSI.
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HSV

Hue, Saturation and Value. A measure similar to HSI.
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HUE

Often used synonymously with the term tint. It is the dominant wavelength, which distinguishes a color or tint as red or yellow, etc. Video hue is influenced by several factors: Adjustment of the white balance* of the camera, quality of the electronic equipment which is being used and lighting of the scene. In the NTSC* standard, hue errors are more common than in the PAL* standard due to a different color encoding system. The PAL system compensates for color problems and it corrects wrong hues during operation. Video color processors* are the main tools used to adjust and correct hue problems. For example, when videotape is shot in a green park there is a tendency for a greenish tint to dominate the whole scene, which should be removed in order to restore natural skin tones.
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I, Q

A function related to the NTSC color difference signals, where I is one function involving different relationships or sums of R-Y and B-Y, and Q is another function.
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I2C

The name of a port and protocol used in industrial and consumer electronic devices. I2C ports are relatively slow, and therefore are most suitable for generation of the control signal effecting a large system. The advantage of this port system is simplicity and that only a small number of interface lines are needed.
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IDTV (EDTV)

Improved Definition Television (Enhanced Definition TV). This standard resembles HDTV* in output quality without the complexity of the HDTV system. The improved picture quality is achieved by extensive processing carried out in the receiver. No different transmission system is needed.
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IEEE

Acronym for the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Organization responsible for defining standards and specifications. www.ieee.org
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IEEE 1394

A recommendation for a fast universal interface and protocol developed by Apple(tm) and published by the Institute of the Electrical and Electronics Engineers, also called Firewire (iLINK). This standard allows fast interfacing between digital cameras, VCRs, CD-ROMs, hard disks, scanners, graphics cards and editing systems. Data rates of 100Mbit/sec are easily obtained by this standard as well as fast and accurate audio/video synchronization. This standard allows "hot swapping" inputs and outputs, adding to its versatility. Firewire is catching on rapidly in the professional video market due to its simplicity, versatility and the ability to easily interconnect video and computer hardware.
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IEEE 1394a

A type of cabling technology for transferring data to and from digital devices at high speed. Some professional digital cameras and memory card readers connect to the computer over FireWire. FireWire card readers are typically faster than those that connect via USB. Also known as IEEE 1394, FireWire was invented by Apple Computer but is now commonly used with Windows-based PCs as well.
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If Loop

The input and output of the IF circuitry provided by a RF* modulator when IF* is being converted (modulated) to RF. The IF loop generated by the RF modulator is accessible externally and can be supplied to other RF modulators. They can also accept IF from another modulator in order to convert it back to RF.
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IFF

Interchange File Format. A graphics file format for Amiga computers, created by Electronic Art and Commodore.
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IM

Intermodulation - distortion or noise. An undesired form of distortion generated by a non-linear amplifier carrying several different signals simultaneously.
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IMAX

An entertainment technology company, with particular emphasis on film and digital imaging technologies. IMAX is involved in the design, leasing, marketing, maintenance, and operation of IMAX® theatre systems to film development, production, post-production and distribution of large-format films. Experimentation in HD as an acquisition format for IMAX is ongoing, along with Digital Cinema electronic projection systems.
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Impedance Matching

Video signals should be treated with care and accuracy, as proper RF* signals, since they occupy a very large spectrum of frequencies - from almost DC (0 Hz) up to several Megahertz. Video generally uses 75 Ohms cable and lines. Input and output impedance (a form of resistance) must be matched to 75 Ohms. If the output impedance of the video source, or the input impedance of the receiver, or the cable carrying the signal, are not properly matched to 75 Ohms, a series of problem may arise. Signal level will not be kept to standard, high frequencies will get lost and fine detail and color information will be lost. In addition, instability, oscillations apparent as snow, component heat-up and ghost images may also appear.
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Import

To bring media elements into your current working space. Video editors can import video and audio clips, still images, and animated sequences in a variety of formats. You can import both individual clips and folders of clips, and add them to bins in an open Project. See also capture, export.
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In Point

A placeholder used to mark a specific timecode as the starting point of a segment in a longer sequence. You can use In and Out points to mark a clip to be captured from a source tape, to mark part of a clip to be trimmed, or to mark a portion of the Timeline to be played. See also marker, Out point.
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Info Palette

A window that displays information about a selected clip or transition.
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Intelsat

International Communication Satellite Organization.
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Interactive TV

A TV system which uses the TV/Cable-network for bi-directional communication. Via TV a user may order groceries, watch a selected movie (VOD- Video On Demand) or get the weather forecast.
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Interlace Imaging

Imaging technique where all the odd lines of a picture are captured in one moment and the even lines are captured in the next moment. When you put two of these “fields” together, you get a “frame” (all of the lines). Notice however that a frame represents two moments in time. If there was movement between the capturing of these two fields, there will be a blurry look if the image is stopped on a frame. This is not a problem when the program is played back at normal speeds because the eye will merge the images into smooth motion. See Progressive Imaging, PsF Imaging, Frame Rate, Capture Rate
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Interlaced Video

A technique used for television video formats, such as NTSC and PAL, in which each full frame of video actually consists of alternating lines taken from two separate fields captured at slightly different times. The two fields are then interlaced or interleaved into the alternating odd and even lines of the full video frame. When displayed on television equipment, the alternating fields are displayed in sequence, depending on the field dominance of the source material. See also progressive video.
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Interlacing

A system developed for television to carry more channels in the broadcast band. This system reduces transmitted bandwidth to half by displaying each video frame by two interlacing (interwoven) fields. One field carries the even video lines and the other the odd lines. Interlacing causes a certain amount of visible flicker*, but in live video it is hardly noticeable. Flicker is more disturbing in PAL*, where the vertical line frequency is 50 Hz, and two 25 Hz fields are displayed one after the other, than in the 60 Hz NTSC system. Interlacing is used in the computer graphics field as well, where higher resolutions can be displayed on an inexpensive monitor by interlacing the image. However, with static images, such as computer-generated text and graphics converted to video, interlacing causes more annoying flicker. Many manufacturers try to eliminate or minimize the flicker effect related to interlacing by raising the allowable vertical frame frequency in PC monitors to 70 Hz and even higher.
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Intermediate Frequency (if)

A frequency to which a signal wave is shifted locally as an intermediate step in transmission or conversion from one frequency to another. In TV transmissions, a video signal is modulated onto a high RF* signal via IF as a temporary stage.
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Interpolate

To automatically create graduated steps between two or more keyframes to create smooth transitions for video, audio, and motion effects.
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Interpolation

A term used in digital video for creation of new pixels by mathematical comparison to the adjacent pixels. It is the opposite of the Decimation* process. This system is often used for DACs* for easing the analog filtering requirements.
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Inverse Telecine

The process used to reverse the effect of 3-2 pulldown, removing the extra fields inserted to stretch 24 frame per second film to 60 field per second interlaced video. See also 2-3/3-2 pulldown.
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IR remote

A type of wireless transmission using infrared light waves.
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IRE

(INSTITUTE OF RADIO ENGINEERS, North America)The term is also used as a video level measurement unit. In the American NTSC system "0" IRE reference is the blanking level, the sync tip is at -40 IRE and the peak white is at 100 IRE. Therefore, a standard 1-Volt peak to peak video level is equal to 140 IRE units.
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ITU

International Telecommunications Union.
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ITVA

Independent Television Association. Now known as MCA-I (Media Communications Association- International www.mca-i.org).
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J-Cut

A split edit in which the In point of a clip is adjusted to overlap the preceding clip so that the audio portion of the later clip starts playing before its video as a lead-in to the visual cut. Also called an audio lead. See also L-cut.
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Jitter

A term describing instability on the time axis. In video, jitter appears as image vibration and breakdown. Special, mainly digital based equipment, is used to correct jitter (see TBC*). Jitter is far more important for digital video signals - SDI* signals for example. Digital clock jitter that accumulates along a video transmission line might create an abrupt signal loss (Cliff Effect*) and special electronic circuitry is needed to restore stability (see Reclocking*).
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JOG

To move slowly through a program, as with frame advance or frame reverse VCR controls. Use the jog tread to step frame by frame through a clip or program to position to a specific frame. See also shuttle.
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JPEG

A still image file format developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group that can compress photographic images into much smaller file sizes while sacrificing only a little image quality. Commonly used for photographs on web pages and in e-mail. See also GIF.
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Jpeg/Mpeg

Joint Picture Experts Group / Motion Picture Experts Group. Standards of storage and retrieval of compressed still and moving video scenes, as used in multimedia* video and computer graphics applications. The standards are based on specific hardware and software algorithms. The JPEG compression system is able to compress graphics files at a 75:1 compression ratio or even more, and can greatly reduce a 24-bit color image for easy storage and transfer.
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Kerning

The spacing between adjacent characters in a text string, as in a title.
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KEY

A control signal that identifies and creates the border of a cutout in a background video image into which another video image is inserted. The key signal can be created and derived from many sources and should be genlocked time-wise to the main and inserted video signals.
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Key

To specify a region of an image or video clip to be used as a mask for transparency. Used to make part of the scene transparent or semitransparent, and then composite it with other superimposed images or video tracks. The region can be specified using features such as color (a color key) or intensity, or with a separate alpha mask or image matte. See also blue screen, matte.
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Keyframe

A point along a timeline or path that defines where and how the settings for an effect will change. One or more settings can then be interpolated from keyframe to keyframe to create the appearance of a smoothly change over a series of frames or along a motion path. See also interpolate.
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K-Factor

A measure of distortion in a processed video signal, which shows on the screen or on the oscilloscope as overshoots and "ringing". Test equipment generates a special signal - a 2T-pulse - in order to measure this distortion. The distortion level is given as a percentage.
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kHz

Kilohertz or 1,000 Hertz. A measurement of frequency.
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Kinetta

Next generation digital cinematography camera project (
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KVM

Short for keyboard, video, and mouse.
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Laser Film Recorder

A machine for printing on photographic film. Three lasers scan across the film area to produce the image.
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Layer Ii

A subset of the Audio part in the MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 standards. Some of its definitions are - 32-384 Kbits/sec, sampling rates of 16-48 kHz etc.
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LCD

Liquid Crystal Display. A display that consists of two polarizing transparent panels and a liquid crystal surface sandwiched in between. Voltage is applied to certain areas, causing the crystal to turn dark. A light source behind the panel transmits through transparent crystals and is mostly blocked by dark crystals.
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L-Cut

A split edit in which the audio Out point of a clip is extended beyond the video Out point, so that the audio cuts after the video and continues playing over the beginning of the next clip. See also J-cut.
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Leader

The beginning of the physical tape on a videocassette or extra material before the beginning of a clip. A tape leader is a strip of nonrecording material that connects the actual recording tape to the spindle on the cassette. Most cassette tapes have about five seconds of leader before the actual recording media portion of the tape begins.
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Legal Gamut

Describes a video signal where all colors are within the gamut of the color space that it currently defined by. See Valid Gamut, Gamut, Color Space.
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Letterbox format

A technique for showing a wider aspect ratio format on narrower aspect ratio screen displayed in its original aspect ratio. The resulting effect of letter boxing in a video system is black bars at the top and bottom of the picture.
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Line Compensation

Use of a video line amplifier/compensator (equalizer, EQ.) to precompensate for high frequency loss resulting from transmission of video signals over long distances (several hundred meters). Deterioration in the picture takes the form of loss of fine details and color distortion*. Sometimes the whole video signal, including sync* information, is severely attenuated.
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Line Doubler/ Quadrupler

In its simple form, a device which converts a video signal to a high frequency computer DATA type signal. It is intended primarily for displaying video on a VGA monitor or on a DATA wide screen projector*. An ADC* is applied to the video signal, reading it into RAM* memory, adding lines and shifting the data to use high frequency scan rates as used by computers, and then passing the signal through a DAC* in order to obtain an analog signal. The resulting image has higher quality and the sophisticated Doublers use interpolation while adding lines in order to increase picture quality. A Line Quadrupler is an extension of a Line Doubler, adding even more lines to the video signal, displaying video on a 1024x768 or higher resolution monitor or projector. It does the opposite of a VGA to Video Scan Converter*.
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Line-up

A test signal recorded at the beginning of a tape, comprising an audio and a video signal, which is used as a reference for future recording and playback.
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Lna/lnb

Low Noise Amplifier / Low Noise Block down-converter. Amplification equipment used near a satellite-receiving dish, for low noise amplification and frequency shifting, before the signal enters the satellite receiver.
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Load Resistance

The resistive impedance that a properly terminated cable places on the signal transmitted through it. In the case of a high frequency signal, signal-to-cable matching is essential to prevent signal deterioration. A specific load resistance (which is equal to cable's characteristic impedance) should terminate the cable, which in video is usually 75 ohms. Improper cable loading results in signal distortion*, ghost images, color loss and other adverse phenomena. The source resistance should be equal to that of the cable's and load resistance.
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Log

A list of clips in a longer sequence, identified by starting and ending timecodes. Use the batch log to build a list of clips to be batch captured from a tape
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Logo Generator

A machine used in broadcast and video production studios for generating a logo, to be displayed on the screen, usually in a specified corner. The logo, which is a graphic symbol, is usually stored on a ROM (Read Only Memory) chip and is keyed into the video picture upon request. Today, the classic generated logo has been replaced by a PC generated logo, encrypted into the video image using Genlock* equipment. The computerized PC logo generator allows more flexibility in logo generation and insertion, provides more graphic and eye-catching tools and is easier to use.
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Looping

A term used to describe the cascading or chaining of a video signal to several video machines (distribution amplifiers*, VCRs, monitors, etc.). A VCR is hooked up to a distribution amplifier, which has a video-input connector, and a loop output connector. When a signal is transmitted to the prime machine through the input socket, it is fed, as an unprocessed signal, through the loop output connector (parallel connection) to the second machine. In turn, exactly the same signal is fed to a third device which is attached to the second one, and so on. Thus a very large number of VCRs or other video devices can be looped together for multiple processing.
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lossless

Any compression scheme, especially for audio and video data, that uses a nondestructive method that retains all the original information, and therefore does not degrade sound or video quality.
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lossy

Any compression scheme, especially for audio and video data, that removes some of the original information in order to significantly reduce the size of the compressed data. Lossy image and audio compression schemes such as JPEG and MP3 try to eliminate information in subtle ways so that the change is barely perceptible, and sound or video quality is not seriously degraded.
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LTC

Longitudinal Time Code. Pronounced LIT-see. Timecode information that is encoded on a linear track of a videotape. It is primarily used to allow a time code reference to be read when a videotape moving at play speeds or faster. See Timecode, VITC.
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Luma Noise

Noise which manifests itself in a video picture as white snow*. It is the product of one or more of the following factors: low signal level due to poor lighting conditions, a poorly-manufactured video device, low quality video tapes, excessively long video cables used without pre-compensation, dirt on the video recorder heads which interferes with reading and writing, and over-enhancement of the video signal. Good quality video processors do not generate Luma noise. They maintain an excellent enhancement level, without sacrificing picture quality, by using noise gates*. Snow* can easily be reduced or eliminated in poorly recorded tapes and a clean copy can be created.
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luminance

The intensity or brightness of a video signal, usually represented by the letter Y. Video signals are split into separate luma and chroma (color) components for higher-quality and more efficient transmission and encoding. In YUV color format, for example, the color information stored in U and V (the color difference signals).
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LUT

Look Up Table.  Often describing a table that allows the translation from one color space to another.
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LUX

A method used in photography for measuring light intensity, and for comparing sensitivities of cameras. (1 Foot-candle =10.76 Lux).
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LZW

Lempel, Ziv and Welch. Compression and encoding method named after the inventors, which analyzes a file - even a color file, and reduces its size by checking redundancy of patterns.
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MAC

Multiplexed Analog Component video. This system uses a single coax cable or any other single link for transmission of component video*. Digital time-compression is usually needed to perform this operation.
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Marker

A placeholder used to mark a specific timecode in a sequence. Use to keep track of changes, events, or synchronization points in a longer sequence. You can use the In and Out point markers to mark a clip to be captured from a source tape, to mark part of a clip to be trimmed, or to mark a portion of the Timeline to be played. See also In Point, Out Point.
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Mask

An image which defines areas in a frame to be used as a transparency key or matte. Each pixel in the mask image indicates the degree of transparency to be used for the corresponding pixel position in each frame. See key, matte.
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Master

For video, the original video or audio source, or final video production with analog media, the first tape you create from your PC video file, also known as the first-generation tape. The master tape is a high-quality source to which you should return whenever you want to make more copies. Although you could use the file on your hard drive as a master, you won't want to keep that file forever because it takes up so much storage space. If you're using analog video, however, the PC file is your master source and first generation; the first physical tape you record is considered to be a second-generation tape. See also analog media, DV, digital media.
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Matte

An image mask used to define the transparent areas of each frame to be used in superimposing multiple clips. See also key.
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Matv

Master Antenna TV. The classic TV broadcasting system where antennas are used for transmitting and receiving TV programs.
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MB

Megabytes ( millions of bytes). In computer use, a megabyte actually represents the closest binary power of 2 to a million, or 1024 squared. See also byte, GB, KB.
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MII

A professional video format, utilizing a 1/2-inch metal particle videotape, using component video for recording and playback. The system is being further upgraded to use digital video signals.
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Mjpeg

Motion JPEG. Each frame/field is compressed to JPEG standards, and the sequence is displayed by sequencing through the JPEG frames. This system provides the best video quality, with little or no artifacts, but needs very fast processing.
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Moire

A video artifact appearing on the screen as close, jittering color lines. This effect is created in the analog video world where high frequency luminance information creates color beats due to insufficient luminance filtering and shortcomings of the monitor. The TV color decoder mistakenly interprets the high frequency signals as chrominance information and creates unwanted color fringes. In the digital world this effect arises due to incorrect sampling rate.
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Monitor Window

The used to preview and edit the Source view of individual video clips and the Program view of the material being assembled on the Timeline. See also Clip window.
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Morphing

A digital effect carried out between two or more images, where the images are merged and transformed, one into the other. The images may be human faces or any other objects. The effect is widely used in video and in the movies, and requires much processing power.
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Motion Blur

The effect of tracking a speeding object and thus blurring the background because of the motion.
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Movie Capture window

The window used to preview and record from DV and analog video and audio devices. Also used for batch capture of a group of clips.
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MP3

An audio file format, especially popular for downloading songs from the web and for storing music in and portable music players. Named for Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) 1, Layer 3. Uses lossy compression to significantly reduce file size, but often with little perceptible loss in sound quality. Used to store large song collections on hard disc, download audio to portable audio players, and save multiple hours of music to CD. Some consumer audio players and set-top DVD players can play MP3 audio files stored on CD-R/RW discs. See also WAV, Windows Media Audio.
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MPEG

A family of popular multimedia file formats and associated compression schemes defined by the Moving Pictures Expert Group. MPEG-1 video was designed for use on CD-ROMs and provides picture quality somewhat comparable to VHS. MPEG-2 video was designed for consumer video and is used on DVD, and can provide high-quality full-screen full-rate video with smaller file sizes. MPEG-4 video is designed for a broad range of multimedia applications, and is used for web and wireless streaming video. MP3 is a commonly-used audio compression format, especially for web downloads and portable music players.
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Mpeg-1

A system for coding of moving pictures and sound. The data rates are 1.5 Mbits/sec. Layer II audio is a subset of this system. MPEG-1 is used for CD audio and video.
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MPEG-1

An older digital video compression format developed in the early 1990s by the Moving Picture Experts Group. MPEG-1 video was designed for lower-resolution video played from CD-ROM and provides picture quality somewhat comparable to VHS (typically 352x240 resolution). Used for Video CD discs.
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Mpeg-2

A collection of definitions for digital audio and video compression used in digital video and audio transmission and play back. Definitions of this standard are used for the DTV* and DVD* formats.
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MPEG-2

A TV-quality digital video compression format developed in the mid-1990s by the Moving Picture Experts Group. MPEG-2 video provides high-quality full-screen full-rate video (720x480 resolution for NTSC) with smaller file sizes than MPEG-1. Used for DVD discs, and also scales to high-definition resolution and bitrates.
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MPEG-4

A digital multimedia compression format developed in the late 1990s by the Moving Picture Experts Group, that includes video, audio, and interactivity. MPEG-4 video is designed for interactive multimedia across networks, and works well for web and wireless streaming video.
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Mtbf

Mean Time Between Failures. A term used to measure long time reliability of a machine or media. The higher the number (usually measured in hours of operation), the smaller the chance of failure in a given time period.
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Multiburst

A video test signal composed of sinusoidal bursts of increasing frequencies, mainly used for frequency response testing and alignment of video equipment.
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Multidistribution

Simultaneous duplication of one video or audio source to many tapes. During multidistribution, a video processor* can be connected between the video source and the distribution amplifier* to enhance the copies.
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Multimedia

Hardware and software that merge video, computer graphics and Multi-channel sound in one interactive session. Multimedia can display several live video scenes on one computer screen in small windows, simultaneously, and control position and shape of the windows by a computer mouse and keyboard. Retrieval of music and other audio signals, and of video scenes recorded on a computer hard disk, for educational, presentation and production purposes are only some of the applications made possible by multimedia, which creates a single computer-video entertainment center.
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Multiplexer (mux)

A device for combining several signals into a single composite signal mainly used in the digital video/audio environment.
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Multiscan Monitor

A monitor (mainly for computer use) which synchronizes on different sync frequencies, allowing the use of different graphics formats on a single monitor, provided the graphics card used is able to do so. Multiscan monitors (sometimes called Multisync or Multifrequency monitors) are very popular, as they are able to cope with new graphics formats. See also analog monitor*.
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Navigator Palette

A window that displays a miniature view of the current Timeline work area within the overall program. Used to scroll and zoom the program in the Timeline view.
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Negative Effect

The conversion of a video picture to a negative image. Black and white are reversed and colors are inverted. Red becomes a bluish tint and green becomes purple, etc. This is a typical special effect* integrated into the better special effects generators*. Negative effect is also used to generate electronic color slides from color negatives. An electronic color filter* is used for the fine adjustment of the hues.
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NF

Noise Figure. A term used to measure and evaluate noise in various electronic systems such as amplifiers. NF is the ratio between the input noise power and the output noise power of an amplifier, or an amplification stage in a more complex system.
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Nicam

Nicam (728) stands for Near Instantaneous Companded Audio Multiplex, and is a system initially developed and adopted by the British BBC for Stereo TV transmissions. The system is being used now in most countries in Europe, and may become the standard in stereo TV transmissions. Audio information is digitally coded and transmitted alongside the video information, allowing mono sound reception in receivers not equipped with the NICAM system (down compatibility). A NICAM TV receiver is equipped with a decoder, which converts the coded digital information into two stereo, analog sound channels.
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Noise

A general term used in electronics to indicate any unwanted electrical disturbance or random signal, unrelated to the signal being processed and tending to modify it. Electronic noise may be the result of several factors: electrical currents and voltages randomly triggered in an electronic device by temperature and voltage applied to the device, avalanches of voltages in an imperfect chip, noise induced by external interfering sources such as the national power-line grid, electric motors, fluorescent lamps, etc.
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Noise Gate

Sophisticated circuitry, which discriminates between unwanted low energy noise signals and the signal being processed. Noise gates and automatic noise gates are integrated into high quality processing devices.
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Noise Reduction

An electronic process used to reduce noise* level in audio and video. It can be performed either before or after recording. An encoding/decoding system, such as the Dolby* noise reduction system, is used before recording. Noise reduction can be performed on an existing tape using DNR (dynamic noise reduction). In professional video production, the most effective means of noise reduction is by digitizing the video image and carrying out a computerized pixel by pixel analysis of the data. In this way the noise element can be discarded.
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Non-Drop-Frame

Timecode counting scheme that always counts 30 frames in a second. Because NTSC video operates at 29.97 frames per second, the counting timecode will not match the time of day. Since there is no drop frame format for native 24P, it is not necessary to specify drop or non-drop frame for these formats. Also see Drop-Frame, Timecode.
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Nonlinearity

The amount by which the video output signal, when subjected to any load within its capacity, differs from an ideally linear output. The greater the deviance, the greater the distortion* of the video signal resulting in both black and white and color problems. All good video-processing devices are designed to contend with nonlinearity.
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Nrz/nrzi

Non Return to Zero (NRZ) is a digital coding system used in RS-232 serial data links. This coding system is polarity sensitive. Non Return to Zero Inverse (NRZI) is a coding system which is insensitive to signal polarity. In this system, low signal levels mean no change in logical levels, and high signal levels represent a logic change from "0" to "1" or vice versa. The NRZI system is more immune to interference and is widely used in digital systems, like SDI*.
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NTSC

National Television Systems Committee, a signal type in the USA. Also the name for the 525 line, 30 frame per second color TV standard mainly used in North, Middle and South America and Japan.
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NTSC safe colors

Colors that are inside the safe region for NTSC television video. Title colors that are outside this range can display badly and bleed on NTSC televisions. See also safe area.
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Nyquist Frequency

The minimum frequency at which a signal may be digitally sampled, in order to allow for faithful reproduction. In most cases it is double the highest frequency available in the sampled signal.
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Offline Editing

Editing that is done using less expensive standard definition equipment to produce an Edit Decision List (EDL) which will be used later for assembling a high definition program using more expensive High Definition equipment. Offline editing involves shot selection and the defining of basic transitions such as cuts and dissolves which can be carried by EDLs. AAF promises to be an open standard for transporting a much wider range of decisions, including DVE, colour corrections, as well as other metadata, Offline and Online systems
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Oirt

An obsolete eastern European broadcasters' union, which merged with the EBU in 1993. The name was also used to describe the broadcasting system in the Eastern Block - a modified SECAM system.
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OMF

Open Media Framework. A file type for post production interchange of digital media. It supports video, audio, graphics, animation and effects as well as edit decision information.
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Online Editing

Editing that is done using more expensive high definition equipment to produce a completed high definition master. Using an Edit Decision List (EDL) from an offline edit can save money in online by allowing all the cuts to be assembled in the proper order automatically (conformed) and ready for finishing touches to be added. AAF promises to be an open standard for transporting a much wider range of decisions, including DVE, colour corrections, as well as other metadata, Offline and Online systems for even more time savings.
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Opaque

Regions of a superimposed image that are solid (not transparent), and therefore cover over the underlying image. See also transparent.
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Out Point

A placeholder used to mark a specific timecode as the end point of a segment in a longer sequence. You can use In and Out points to mark a clip to be captured from a source tape, to mark part of a clip to be trimmed, or to mark a portion of the Timeline to be played. See also marker, In point.
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Overcranking

A process based on the film camera technique of recording frames faster than the anticipated playback rate to create “slow-motion”. This process provides unique control of motion images in the camera where motion-blur and other techniques can be incorporated in the process. Panasonic has developed an electronic recording system capable of over/undercrank recording using a process that produces results very much like the film technique. This Panasonic system is known as “VariCam.” Sony has utilized a system where interlaced frames can be interpolated to create progressive frames, creating a look of overcranking.
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Overlay

Keyed insertion of one image into another. Overlay is used, for example, to super-impose computer generated text on a video image for titling purposes. The overlay procedure requires genlocked* sources for proper operation. In the computer field, overlay files are accessory files containing mainly graphics information, following or within computer programs.
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Oversampling

When a signal is digitally sampled at frequencies much higher than the NYQUIST* frequency. When this method is used, filtering the signals is easier and less expensive, although sampling at higher frequencies is more problematic.
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Overscan

Displaying a video or computer generated image in a size exceeding the physical screen, therefore showing only part of the information. Overscan normally stretches the image in both directions, and is used to fill up a screen with an image initially smaller than the screen, like some computer generated graphics images in formats smaller than video (CGA or EGA images.)
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Overshoot

A distortion in a signal due to imperfections in the processing in the signal path. For example, when a square wave has sharp spikes at its edges. The overshoot level is measured as the percentage of the spikes relative to the original signal. Sometimes overshoot is done on purpose, emphasizing the edges of a video signal to create sharpness effect.
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PAL

Phase Alternation Line (PAL), The European color TV broadcasting standard featuring 625 lines per frame and 50 frames per second. It has a more complex color encoding system than NTSC, but provides better color fidelity and better resolution.
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Palette Windows

Small floating windows that provide convenient access to information, options, and commands used in video editing. Palettes can be adjusted, hidden, and docked as desired to accommodate your editing style.
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Palplus

A widescreen TV standard (16:9 format) used mainly in Europe for creating a "better-looking" image on the screen. It employs special technology for color and luminance image enhancement and resembles the HDTV format. It shows as a letterbox on a regular TV.
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Pan and Scan

A technique for changing the field of view of a motion picture or down converted HDTV images so that only a portion of the wider image is shown on a narrower standard definition screen. The image is adjusted side to side to adjust framing for the narrower screen.
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Panavision Genesis

Next Generation digital cinematography camcorder by Panavision ( www.panavision.com). Features 12.4 Megapixel sensor that is the same size as a 35mm film target allowing for all existing Panavision 35mm lenses. An HDCamSR recorder can be mounted on the top or back of the camera unit for on-board recording.
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PCX

A graphics file format developed by Zsoft Corp. This format which is raster based supports graphics from monochrome up to 24-bit color (16 million colors).
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Pedestal

A small DC step within the video signal separating active video* from the blanking level which indicates the picture's black-level*. It is used as a reference in a standard video signal for the white level and all the gray levels in between. Only NTSC uses a pedestal.
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Perceptual compression

A compression technique that takes advantage of knowledge of how humans perceive; that is, by eliminating visual detail that the eye cannot easily see or audio frequencies that the ear cannot easily hear.
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Phase Error

A change in the color subcarrier* signal whereby its timing is moved out of phase, i.e., occurring at a different instant from the original signal. Since color information is encoded in a video signal as a relation between the modulated color signal and the color burst* phase, a deviation in the color subcarrier phase results in a change in the hue* of the picture. In NTSC* video transmission, phase error immediately results in a substantial change in the hue. In PAL, small changes in hue are automatically corrected, and only a minor reduction in color saturation* occurs. The hue remains consistent.
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PICT

The standard Apple Macintosh still image Picture file format.
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Pict/pct/pic

The most popular Macintosh graphics file format, bitmap based, supporting from monochrome up to 24-bit color images.
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Picture Border Softness

A border created while one video image is inserted into a designated area in another (in a circle, rectangle or almost any other shape) by using a special effects generator*. This border* between the two images can vary from a sharp line to a vague blending of images between the two pictures. One of the more sophisticated features in special effects generators is picture border (edge) control. It allows the user to control both the color and the sharpness or fuzziness (softness) of the border between the two images.
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Picture Element / Pixel

The smallest "dot" on the TV or monitor screen usually comprised of tri-color dots: red, green and blue. The PIXEL size is a measure of the screens' maximal resolution.
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Picture Sharpness

The quantity of fine details in a video picture. A picture appears sharp when it contains fine details, extended micro-contrast (the distinction between fine details and the surrounding background) and sharp, thin edges. Picture sharpness is easily lost during the recording process and, to a lesser extent, during playback*. Advanced video enhancement equipment is used to improve picture sharpness, especially micro-contrast. Potential losses, which might damage an image during video processing, are automatically pre-compensated for. Although picture sharpness is a subjective factor, it is technically measurable as the ratio between high frequency signals (about 2 MHz) and low frequency signals.
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PIP

Picture-In-Picture. A digitally based method of inserting one video image into another for special effects purposes and for monitoring several video images simultaneously on one screen (several PIP units can be used together each compressing an image into the main screen in a different location).
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Pixel

The individual picture elements, or "dots" of color, that are arranged in a two-dimensional array to define a digital image or video frame. The dimensions or resolution of an image are described in terms of the horizontal and vertical pixel count.
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Playback

The process whereby videotape on another video source (DVD* etc.) is displayed on the monitor. During playback, video enhancement, carried out on a video processor, can be incorporated into the signal to alter, correct or restore it.
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Porch - Front/back

A short period of time, of several microseconds - before and after the sync pulse, that is a part of the blanking period, riding on blanking signal level. The porch can be used for clamping purposes, as it does not carry visible picture information.
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Posterization

The conversion of a standard video image into a picture which consists of a few large single-colored areas. Graduations of fine color and brightness are totally removed. The result is a crude, harsh image. This is a typical special effect* available on better special effects generators*.
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Post-production

All the editing work done with the video crude material in the studio after filming. Editing, special effects insertion, image enhancement, and other processes enriching and fine-tuning the production are done in a studio during post-production.
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Pr / Pb

A color difference signal representing a scaling formula for B-Y and R-Y signals. By using the appropriate formula, 700mVpp of Pr and Pb represent a 100% saturation level in component video.
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Pre-enhancement

In many cases, through acquaintance with his video equipment, tapes and cables, a user anticipates video losses. Therefore, he can introduce video enhancement into the video signal to restore the original unattenuated and undistorted signal (See also Line Compensation).
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Preroll

To start a tape spinning up to speed before beginning playback or capture to ensure that the operation is synchronized properly.
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Preview

To play a program on the Timeline and view the appearance of the final production, including transitions and effects. See also scrub.
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Preview Bus

A standard function on better quality video special effects generators* which allows the operator to select any of the video sources attached to the device and preview all special effects before he begins video processing. The preview bus is operated through a series of switches on the special effects generator, each of which is assigned to a specific input. Each input signal can be previewed on its own monitor by pressing the relevant switch. This is a rapid and effective method to check work before going on the air.
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Preview file

Temporary file to save the results of rendering a portion of the Timeline. With these files, editors can preview the results of your editing on the Timeline at full playback rate, including transitions and effects. See also scratch disk.
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Primary Colors

The basic colors used in TV and video systems - Red, Green and Blue.
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Processing Amplifier (procamp)

An electronic device which is designed to change parameters in a video or audio signal. A video ProcAmp, for example, has color saturation, hue, brightness, contrast and/or definition control.
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Program Bus

Similar to the preview bus*. It is also operated through a series of switches, each of which is assigned to a specific input device (special effects generator*, routing switcher*, etc.) One or more input signals can be chosen to be mixed or simultaneously processed in another fashion. The processed output of the program bus is the final product, which goes on the air.
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Program View

The Monitor window view that displays the production being assembled on the Timeline. Depending on the current settings, this can be a simple preview of the cuts between adjacent clips, or a fully rendered preview with transitions and effects. See also Source view.
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Progressive download

A technique for downloading Internet video and/or audio clips so that they can be viewed at the same time that they are being transferred to your computer. This provides some of the benefits of streaming media without requiring a special streaming server. See also streaming media.
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Progressive Imaging

All lines (whole frame) are captured at the same instant. Each frame represents a single moment in time. See Interlace Imaging, PsF Imaging , Frame Rate, Capture Rate
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Progressive Scan

Video display in which the entire screen in refreshed (redrawn) at once. Typically used for computer monitors and high-end video systems. See also interlaced video.
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Progressive Video

Video consisting of complete frames, not interlaced fields. Each individual frame is a coherent image captured by the camera at a single moment in time. See also interlaced video.
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Project window

The main window, used to import and save clips used in the program you are editing and organize them into bins. You save each editing activity in a separate Project file, including the imported material and editing context.
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PS/2

A port type developed by IBM for the purpose of connecting a keyboard or mouse to a PC. The PS/2 port has a mini DIN plug containing 6 pins. PS/2 ports are used so that the serial port can be used by another device. The PS/2 port is often called the mouse port.
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PsF Imaging

Progressive-Segmented Frame Imaging. All lines (whole frame) are captured at the same instant. Each frame represents a single moment in time. After the frame is captured, it is then separated (Segmented) into two halves. One half is the odd lines and the other is the even lines. (Now this may sound like interlace, but each frame represents only one moment in time, not two). Though transmitted similarly as an interlaced signal, if treated as a progressive signal, does not cause the same harmful artifacts that interlace scanning causes. Often image can be processed with much of the same transmission hardware that was designed for interlace. Processing hardware can also be designed to handle both Interlace and PsF (ie Switchable). See Interlace Imaging, Progressive Imaging
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QAM

“Quadrature amplitude modulation”. Standard initially adopted by Comcast Cable, referred to as a DTV cable broadcasts.
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Quad Screen

Display where 4 cameras are viewed on the same screen, each camera image occupying a quarter of the display area. Other 'multi-screen' modes are possible such as 9, 16 and 25 way. The splits do not always have to be equal and other configurations can be possible.
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Radio Frequency (rf)

A term used to describe radio signals incoming to a receiver or outgoing from a radio transmitter (above 150 KHz). Even though they are not properly radio signals, TV signals are also included in this category.
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RCA connector

A connector with a single central plug, commonly used for audio signals and composite and component video. Also called a phono connector. See also BNC connector, F connector, FireWire connector, S-Video connector.
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RealMedia

Multiplatform, multimedia Web streaming file format from Real Networks (.RM, .RAM).
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Real-time Preview

To play back a program in the Timeline at full rate, while showing edits such as transitions, effects, overlays, and titles. Allows viewing the effects of edits immediately, without the need to wait and render the program each time. Video editors simulate the frame rate and appearance of the final program as possible depending on the complexity of the program and the system performance.
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Reclocking

A process used in Serial Digital communication to reduce jitter - usually a result of long cable runs - which has accumulated on the signal. By Reclocking at adequate intervals, cable losses can be completely overcome. In the analog world, Time Base Correction using a TBC* performs a similar task.
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Remote Socket

A small socket on a VCR or video camera* which permits remote control from any unit which is connected to it. Through the remote socket on a VCR, commands such as Play, Pause, Record, etc. can be initiated.
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Render

To generate a video production in its final form, including transitions, effects, and superimposed tracks. You can render portions of a Timeline in order to preview your edits at that point, or render the entire production before exporting it in its final form, to a disk file or out to tape.
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Render-Scrub

To preview a program in the Timeline and display the visual effects of transitions or other effects but not at full playback speed. Used to preview a portion of the Timeline before rendering it. See also scrub, real-time preview.
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Resolution

Amount of pixels on the screen. If states “DPI” for example: 96dpi, which means 96 dots (pixels) per inch.
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Resolution

The dimensions of an image, in pixels, typically expressed as the number of horizontal pixels across and the number of vertical pixels down. See also aspect ratio.
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RF

Radio Frequency, is the type of signal that comes through the air by antenna or through a cable TV connection .
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Rf Amplification

Amplification of a signal by a receiver before processing or transmission. An RF* signal is frequently attenuated during processing due to hostile environments (high capacitance, improper loading, etc.). To avoid such losses, RF amplification is performed before the signal is transmitted. RF amplification is also needed when an RF signal, coming from an RF modulator, is distributed to several acceptors simultaneously.
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RF Conversion

A process which takes low frequency signals such as audio and video and, via an RF* modulator, converts them to higher (broadcast) frequencies suitable for radio or TV reception.
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RF Distribution

The process of supplying an RF* signal to several acceptors simultaneously. During RF distribution, RF amplification* and proper input and output matching should be performed in order to avoid signal losses.
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RF Modulation

See RF Conversion.
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RF video

Acronym for Radio Frequency. A composite video signal that has been modulated with audio onto a high-frequency radio wave that could be transmitted from an antenna. Typically connected to the antenna input of a TV receiver, and received on channel 3 or 4. The simplest and lowest-quality video signal connection. See also component video, composite video, DV, S-Video.
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RGB

Short for Red, Green, Blue, the colors used to create all color television and video.The basic constituents of a color video signal. By using a color encoder, in conjunction with sync information, a complete composite video signal comprising luminance, chrominance and sync can be generated. Professional processing equipment always employs RGB signals for editing and processing. The use of component video, of which RGB is one form, results in superior quality output.
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RGB (RGsB, RGBS, RGBHV)

The original "component video" was RGB, which appears in three principal varieties, each requiring a different number of connections. The most common type is RGBHV, with five lines: one for red, one for green, one for blue, one for the horizontal sync and one for the vertical sync. RGBHV is the standard used in VGA and other analog PC computer monitors. RGBS, having four connections, differs from RGBHV in having the vertical and horizontal sync combined on a single channel, while RGsB places the sync information on the green channel.
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Rip

To extract data from a removable disc. Typically, to copy songs from a prerecorded CD-Audio disc to hard disc in order to organize a collection, and play and burn personalized playlists.
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Ripple Edit

A method of editing in the Timeline so that when new material is inserted, or existing material is deleted, other material is adjusted to fit. In a ripple edit, the change ripples through the rest of the material, as the existing clips slide apart to make room for the new material, or slide together to fill a gap. See also rolling edit, slide edit, slip edit.
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Rise Time

A parameter indicating the speed and frequency response of an amplifier or of a processing stage in an electronic circuit. Rise Time is the time it takes a signal to change its level from 10% to 90% of the maximum amplitude. The shorter this time, the faster the amplifier. Shorter Rise Time indicates better high frequency response.
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Roll

To scroll lines of title text vertically up or down the screen. See also crawl.
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Rolling Edit

A method of editing in the Timeline by adjusting and trimming two adjacent clips. When you roll the cut point between the adjacent clips, the durations of the two clips are adjusted to keep the overall program duration unchanged. The Out point of the first clip is changed in tandem with the In point of the second clip so that, as one increases in duration, the other decreases to match it. See also ripple edit, slide edit, slip edit.
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Rough Cut

A quick assembly of raw clips to approximate the desired final program. As a first step in editing, arranging a collection of clips in the desired order as a storyboard of the production.
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RS-170/170a

RS-170 is the American standard used for black and white TV that defines video signal parameters - Sync, Blanking and signal levels. RS-170A is a revision of RS-170, allowing color transmissions and video use.
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Safe area

Also known as the safe zone. Margins left around the edge of the image. Used when working with material intended for display on television. Safe margins keep titles from bleeding off the screen. See also overscan.
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SAV

Start of Active Video. A term used in digital component video to indicate the onset of the active line.
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Saw Filter

A hermetically sealed device, employing SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) technology, which responds only to a very specific bandwidth. It permits a narrow frequency band to pass through while rejecting all other signals. A SAW filter has very steep shoulders cutting out everything that is outside its band of transmission. SAW filters have excellent out-of-band signal rejection quality eliminating, to a great extent, all unnecessary, spurious signals.
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Saw Modulator

With the aid of SAW* technology special modulation used in TV transmission is easily achieved and a number of transmitting bands can be compressed into close broadcast ranges. An RF* modulator utilizing SAW* technology, produces a very clean and accurate signal on the screen.
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Scale

To reduce or enlarge an image or video sequence by squeezing or stretching the entire image to a smaller or larger image resolution.
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Scan Converter

A machine that changes the scan rates (sync frequencies and data) of a signal to transform it to another format. If, for example, a VGA signal is to be converted to video, a Scan Converter is needed. The operation is done by converting the analog VGA signal to a digital form using an ADC*, reading the information into a RAM* memory, rescaling the signals and sync information and converting them back to an analog form using a DAC*. Scan converters convert both the sync frequencies and the DATA information simultaneously in order to shift all into another format. Scan Converters are also used in order to match specific monitors to signals of other formats. A good example is in the medical field, where data emerging from medical equipment at non-standard rates (like from Ultra Sound scanners or CT scanners) is to be converted to VGA or video formats for processing or recording. The Scan Converters are usually confined for a specific use in order to keep the price low, but there are expensive Scan Converters that convert between a large number of different formats.
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Scart

A European video-audio connector widely used in consumer equipment. The Scart connector has 21 pins, carrying two audio channels - in and out, video channels - in and out, RGB signals, ground and some additional control pins. In order to connect two VCRs or a VCR to a monitor only one Scart-to-Scart cable is needed, avoiding the cable jungle of video and audio inputs and outputs, which may confuse the home user. Simplicity of connections is the main advantage of the Scart system, however, it is not recommended for professional use as the physical connection is quite weak and signal leakage is too high.
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Scene

A single video sequence, typically shot in one continuous take. For editing purposes, it is useful to capture or trim your video material so that each scene is stored as an individual clip that can then be edited on the Timeline. See also clip.
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Scratch Disk

A dedicated work area on hard disk. Used for temporary storage and for saving preview files.
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Screen Splitter

An electronic process, which allows the video screen to be split horizontally or vertically showing the signal before processing on one part of the screen and the processed signal on the other. Full screen splitting provides precise fingertip control of the video enhancement process. Screen splitting is a proprietary process developed by Kramer Electronics. It has been adapted at the consumer level in video processing equipment and is now used worldwide.
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Scrub

To play a program in the Timeline by dragging the edit line. You can also render-scrub to show the visual effects of transitions or other effects, but not at full playback speed. See also real-time preview.
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SDI

Serial Digital Interface. A format of digital video in serial form, evolving from parallel digital component video, digitized at 4:2:2 ratio. The stream of data is very fast - from 270 Mbits/sec up to 360 Mbits/sec. Other information such as digital AES/EBU audio signals can be embedded in this stream of information.
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SDI Check Signal

One of the digital test signals used for testing SDI PLL (Phase Locked Loop) and equalizer circuitry.
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SDTV

Standard Definition Television. A regular type of TV that has been on the market for over 40 years. The best connection that can be attained is S-Video and this TV does not accept digital signal
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SECAM

Systeme Electronique Couleur Avec Memoire. This is the 625 line, 25frame per second color television system in use today in France and the Middle East.
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SECAM (sequential Couleur A Memorie)

The TV and video standard used in France, Eastern Europe and some Arab countries. The system resembles PAL*; however, due to limitations and the complexity of its color encoding*, serious video production is almost impossible within the framework of the SECAM system. In countries using the SECAM standard most video production is done using the PAL standard and, prior to transmission, tapes are converted to SECAM.
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Sepia

A process used in photography to generate a brownish tone in pictures providing an antique appearance. The same idea has been electronically adapted in video special effects* generation. A color picture can be converted to sepia tones or a black and white picture can be colored in sepia.
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Serial Port

A computer I.O. (Input-Output) port through which the computer communicates with the external world. The standard serial port is RS-232 based and allows bi-directional communication on a relatively simple wire connection as data flows serially.
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Serial To Parallel Converter

A Deserializer which converts between Serial Digital Video to parallel Digital Video, and is mainly used for interfacing the two digital formats.
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Serrations

Serrations are short, positive pulses within the vertical sync which are needed for proper synchronization of the video image on a screen. Loss of serration pulses can result in loss of picture stability, skewing* effect and frequently to color loss in the PAL system.
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Servo

A very accurate electromechanical control system found in video and audio tape recorders.
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Shuttle

A provision available on high quality VCRs for fast search of frames while playing a video tape.
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Signal-to-noise Ratio

The ratio, in decibels, of the maximum peak-to-peak voltage of a relevant signal in relation to the voltage of all interfering non-relevant noise* signals. In audio, the higher the signal-to-noise ratio, the cleaner the sound; in video, the better the ratio, the less snow* resides in the picture.
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Sine X/X

A video test signal for testing frequency response.
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Single-Trak editing

A style of editing in which the Timeline is condensed to a single row per track. See also A/B editing.
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Skewing

Due to loss or distortion of equalizing pulses and serrations, mainly in high generation videotapes, the upper third of the video picture may flag sidewise or skew. To overcome the problem at the consumer level - his TV is equipped with an AV channel, which, when selected for VCR viewing, changes some time constants in the sync regeneration circuits, allowing viewing without skewing. In professional studios this problem is solved using a TBC*.
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Slide Edit

A method of editing in the Timeline by moving a clip and trimming neighboring clips to adjust to the change. When you slide a clip earlier or later in the program, the neighboring clips are trimmed accordingly by changing their In and Out points so that the duration of the overall program remains unchanged. See also ripple edit, rolling edit, slip edit.
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Slip Edit

A method of editing in the Timeline by changing the trim points in a clip. When you slip the trim points earlier or later in a clip, the In and Out points are adjusted correspondingly so that the duration of the clip is unchanged. A slip edit also does not affect the rest of the program on the Timeline. See also ripple edit, rolling edit, slip edit.
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SMPTE

Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Organization responsible for defining standards and specifications for the motion picture and broadcast industry including: SMPTE Time Code, NTSC, HDTV, etc. www.smpte.org
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Smpte 125m

A standard which defines the interface for system M (525/60) digital television and which is based on CCIR 601*. This standard is defined for use in television studios for up to 300m distance. It is a Bit-Parallel digital interface for component video signals at 4:2:2* digitization format.
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Smpte 244m

A standard which defines the interface for system M/NTSC (525/60) digital television and which is based on CCIR 601*. This standard is defined for use in television studios for up to 300m distance. It is a Bit-Parallel digital interface for composite video signals at 4xFsc sampling frequency. This standard defines the sampling parameters, the relationship between sampling phase and color subcarrier and the digital levels of the video signal.
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Smpte 259m

A standard which describes the serial digital interface for system M (525/60) digital television equipment, operating at either 4:2:2* component video signal or 4Fsc NTSC composite video signal. The standard proposed by the SMPTE is intended for 10 bit digitization schemes.
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Snow

A general term used to describe interference on videotape. Snow in video is synonymous with chroma and Luma noise*. It often manifests itself in a video picture as colored or black and white dots. Snow can result when the chrominance in the video signal is weak or oversaturated, when the signal is over-enhanced, when the video head is dirty or due to a host of other reasons. Good video processors* reduce or eliminate snow.
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Sound On Sync

A method of inserting a sound channel into an analog video signal. The sound channel is modulated and inserted into the line sync signal. A special device is needed in order to retrieve the audio information. It is a good way to add a sound channel to a video signal (adding a second channel for stereo, for example).
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Source View

The Monitor window view that displays a source clip for viewing and editing on the Timeline. The source clip can be from a bin in the Project window, or from a track on the Timeline. See also Program view.
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SPDIF

Sony/Philips Digital Interface. SPDIF is a digital interface designed to enable digital equipment to transfer digital information with minimal loss.
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Special Effects

Artistic effects added to a video production in order to enhance a tape. Special effects may vary from the limited addition of patterns, the mixing of several video images together, completely changing color and texture of the image, to sophisticated digital effects such as shrinking the picture, page flipping, three-dimensional effects, etc. Special effects generators usually create special effects*.
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Special Effects Generators

Devices designed to generate special effects*. The simplest devices can process a single video signal - changing its color, generating sepia* tones, inverting the picture to a negative form, posterizing* the image and fading* or breaking up the image into various patterns. More sophisticated equipment utilizes several video sources, computer-generated graphics and sophisticated animation* with digital effects. Many special effects generators have a built-in color generator adding color or border lines to the video image during special effects* generation.
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SPG

Sync Pulse Generator, sometimes called Black Burst Generator. A device, which generates sync, burst, subcarrier and other signals and is used as a reference source for video and television studios. Some SPGs generate Color Bars* as well, that may be recorded as reference signals at the beginning of a video tape.
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Split Edit

To adjust the video and audio portions of a clip separately so that they start or end at different times. Used for audio cross-fading so that the audio can lead in or fade out independently from the cut in the video. See also L-cut and J-cut.
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split-screen

A divided display that shows two clips, or portions of clips, side by side.
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Staircase

A video test signal which generates several signal stairs at different levels (amplitudes) for measuring and evaluating non-linearity.
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Standard Definition (SD)

Usually refers to an NTSC (or PAL) compatible video format consisting of 480 (576 for PAL) active lines of interlaced video.
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Still Frame

A single image or single frame of a video clip. See also freeze frame.
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Stillstore

An electronic device for digital capture and playback of TV and video pictures, using a storage device such as a Hard Disk or RAM (Random Access Memory).
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streaming media

Internet video and/or audio clips that can play directly over the Internet, without needing to be downloaded first onto a computer. Used to view and hear broadcasts, and to interactively play and seek in stored clips. See also progressive download.
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Stripe

To prepare a new videotape for a recording by prerecording a consistent timecode over the full length of the tape.
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strongboard

In video production, a series of cartoonlike panels drawn to describe a movie, shot by shot. In video editing, an interface that allows you to organize the sequential flow of your production by arranging thumbnails of each video clip. See also Timeline.
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Stronghold Window

A window used to organize a group of clips into a sequence. You can use this window to quickly lay out the scenes to include in your production into a rough cut and then move them into the Timeline for further editing. See also Timeline window.
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Subtitle

A text overlay on video materials, typically used to display the audio dialog in various languages, or to transcribe hard-to-understand speech.
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Super Vhs

A video system which differs from standard Composite video in several crucial ways. The bandwidth is considerably wider as luminance* and chrominance are separated in the signal. This format, named also Y/C, is widely used for production in semi-professional as well as in many broadcast studios.
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Super Video

A video system which differs from standard Composite video in several crucial ways. The bandwidth is considerably wider as luminance* and chrominance are separated in the signal. This format, named also Y/C, is widely used for production in semi-professional as well as in many broadcast studios.
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Superimpose Track

In video editing, the Video 2 track and above, which can include titles, logos, and other material to be overlaid on the bottom Video 1 track.
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Super-vga

A computer graphics format beyond VGA*. Super-VGA displays 16 colors at resolutions of 800x600 and 1024x768 pixels, as well as 256 colors at 640x480 and 800x600 pixels resolution. The 640x480 at 256 colors is the most suitable for video use (after conversion to video) with almost natural colors.
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S-VHS

A video system which differs from standard Composite video in several crucial ways. The bandwidth is considerably wider as luminance* and chrominance are separated in the signal. This format, named also Y/C, is widely used for production in semi-professional as well as in many broadcast studios.
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S-Video

A video signal that transmits the brightness (luminance or luma) and the color (chrominance or chroma) information separately. Actually uses a single cable, but with two wires in the cable. Because the luma and chroma are separate, S-Video provides higher quality than composite video. Requires a separate audio signal and connector. Also called Y/C, or sometimes (incorrectly) called S-VHS. See also composite video, component video, DV, RF video.
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S-Video connector

A specialized connector used for S-Video signals. Contains multiple pins for the separate video components. See also BNC connector, F connector, FireWire connector, RCA connector, S-Video.
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Sweep

A video test signal comprised of sine waves of equal amplitudes and linearly changing frequencies used to measure the frequency response of a video device.
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SXRD

(Silicon X-tal Reflective Display) Digital display technology introduced by Sony. If offers high pixel resolutions and contrast ratios. Digital Cinema projectors have been announced with brightness of up to 10,000 lumens and 4k (4096x2160) image resolution
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Sync Restoration

A process which replaces distorted and missing sync* information with good synchronization pulses generated by the restoring device. In many instances, during video editing* or multiple generation copying, sync pulses are lost or distorted. Sync restorers check the incoming syncs, analyze the frequencies involved and generate new, fully restored syncs, which replace the faulty source syncs.
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Sync Stripping

Sync stripping is an electronic process, done either with discrete components or with special electronic chips, whereby the sync information is separated from the rest of the video information for timing correction, clamping and other purposes.
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Synchronization (sync)

A term used in electronics to describe the precise matching of two waves or functions. In television and video, sync is an essential element in the video signal to keep the scanning processes in phase. The sync signal instructs the monitor as to the exact points at which a frame or line starts and ends. This information is critical for the proper positioning of the image on the screen. When a sync signal is distorted or missing, the picture may lose stability. It may become garbled to the point of total image breakdown. Electronic circuitry in many video processing devices provides sync restoration* and correction. Sometimes a TBC* is required to recover or restore sync. (See Horizontal and Vertical Sync).
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Syncronize

To keep two sequences playing at the same rate (in sync). A slide show or a series of video clips can be synced to the beat on an audio track. A talking-head video needs to maintain lip-sync, so that the audio matches the mouth movements of the speaker.
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Talking Head

A clip that shows just the head and shoulders of a person who is talking. This tight focus is often used in interview situations where the background is not as important as the talking subject. It is also convenient in a movie destined for the Web because the small amount of movement in a talking-head shot compresses well for the Internet.
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Tally Control

A signal lamp on professional video and TV cameras to inform performers and crewmembers which particular camera is on the air. In large studios the lamp arrangement is duplicated on mixing tables for the convenience of the director.
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Tape to Film Transfer

The process of printing high definition or computer graphics footage to film.
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TBC (time Base Corrector)

A device used to rectify the results of distorted sync* pulses which are due to mechanical faults (tape transport, tape stretch, etc.). TBCs are also used to synchronize two video sources to allow mixing. TBCs employ one of two technologies. In the past, CCD* technology was used to move or alter a video signal in an analog* memory chip and was suitable for simple analog synchronization. However, CCDs had very limited memory capabilities. Therefore, Digital TBCs are now common. They usually break down the video signal to its components. This is extremely flexible as it permits storage of a full frame or more in a digital memory device (RAM chips). It operates in full bandwidth with 8 or more bits conversion scheme and is suitable for professional applications.
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TDM (time Division Multiplex)

A system intended to combine several signals on one channel by alternately sending packets of each signal in predefined segments of time.
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Telecine

Usually refers to a Film to Video device that operates at “real time” (ie at least 24 frames per second). Often used to describe the color correction/enhancement step in a production workflow. Also see Film Scanner.
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Tele-prompter

A device used in news casting for displaying large text on a partially transparent screen where the reader can look at the camera and read the text from the screen placed in front of the camera. In old systems, one person read the news, while the other rolled a transparent, long message banner in front of the camera. In modern Tele-prompter devices, the user does it with a mirrored computer screen that, in most cases, he himself controls.
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Teletext

A service provided by TV broadcasting stations, which transmits latent data information alongside the video signal. In order to retrieve the teletext information and display it on the screen, the TV receiver is equipped with a teletext decoder. The data information is usually encoded and inserted in the vertical-blanking interval. Corrupted teletext information often causes image instability and picture roll as they effect the video syncs.
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Ten Bit (10 Bit)

An expression used to describe a digital data stream of 10-bit width. A ten-bit digital word can have 1024 steps or values. Digitizing video at 10-bit resolution is acceptable for most broadcast specifications, as the 1024 recovered steps accurately represent the digitized signal. When an 8-bit stream of data is used, only 256 steps are recoverable.
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Termination Switch

A load device, usually a 75-ohm resistor, connected by a switch to a video transmission line to terminate the line. For a video signal be correctly transmitted without losses, proper impedance is essential at the end of the line. In many video-processing devices, a termination switch is therefore included as a standard feature. When the termination switch is in the Hi-Z position, the video signal is not terminated but looped to the next station. The signal can thus be transmitted in parallel through an almost unlimited number of devices. The termination switch terminates the final device.
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TFT Screen

TFT stands for Thin-Film-Transistor. This new technology is mainly used for manufacturing flat computer and video screens, which are superior to classic LCD* screens. Color quality, fast response and resolutions are excellent for video, and therefore, TFT screens are replacing tube-based Wide Screen projectors* as well. In the beginning there were some price and technical problems with TFT screens. The price was high, mainly due to low yield in the wafer production process, the brightness of the screen was quite low and the resolution, although fine for composite video, was not sufficient for high-resolution computer graphics. As technology advanced, most of the problems were solved and now, bright, high-resolution TFT screens are available at very reasonable prices.
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TGA/TARGA

A graphics file format initially developed for use with Truevision Targa/Vista graphics boards. This file format, with its variations, supports up to 32 bit formats. The images in the file can be either uncompressed or compressed with RLE (Run Length Encoding) compression format, and the file structure is very simple, reliable and suitable for file transfer and exchange between various computers.
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Three-Point Edit

A method of setting In and Out points to precisely control where and how frames are inserted into a Timeline. In a three-point edit, you set any three such markers, and the software determines the fourth to match the specified duration. See also four-point edit.
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TIFF

A widely used graphics file format for PC and Macintosh computers. This file format supports from monochrome up to 24-bit color and supports RGB through CMYK formats. Despite its popularity, the format is quite complex, and Tiff files created by one computer may be unreadable by another.
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Time Ruler

The time display row along the top of the Timeline, showing the time code along the production. See also edit line.
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Timecode (TC)

Standard format for recording time information on videotape. Each frame is given a unique number that is represented in the form of: Hours:Minutes:Seconds:Frames. When used correctly, a specific frame of video can be located on a videotape by using its timecode number. When doing offline editing, proper timecode handling is critical because the timecode is what is used to reference the master tapes in the final assembly process. See LTC, VITC
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Timeline

In video editing, an interface that allows you to assemble a collection of clips into a production with multiple overlapping tracks. A timeline provides a view of multiple sources being combined over time, with separate tracks for video, audio, and superimposed video, as well as transitions and effects. See also storyboard.
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Timeline Window

A window used to assemble, trim, arrange, and superimpose video, audio, and image clips into a program. See also Storyboard window.
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Title

Onscreen text (and associated graphics) that can be used to add information to your production. Used as a title screen at the beginning of your production, for subtitles superimposed under the video, and for rolling credits at the end.
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Title Safe

The area of a screen where it is possible to place a title where there is no chance that it will not be displayed in it’s entirety. In high definition production it is often combined with what downconversion format is used. For example “4x3 title safe” would mean that all titles are positioned such that when the HD program is downconverted edge-cropped that none of the titles would be cut off.
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Title Window

A window used to lay out and design title text and graphics.
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Titling

The superimposition of text on a video tape. Titles are added to a video scene during or after the production. Sophisticated titling devices allow the user to prepare text and graphics in various sizes, fonts and colors which are later inserted, one-by-one, at the appropriate places. An entire feature film can be titled in this fashion. Many video cameras* either include built-in titlers or permit externally-produced titles to be mixed with the image produced by the camera while shooting.
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Track

A sequence of video or audio clips in the a video editing timeline that are to be combined and superimposed into a final production.
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Tracking

A method of controlling the mechanical position of the video head over the recorded material on video tape. Due to small differences in alignment of head-to-tape position in different VCRs, it is sometimes necessary to re-adjust the tracking control on one VCR when playing a tape that was recorded on another. Nowadays, most VCRs have an automatic, digital tracking system and no user intervention is required.
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Transactions Palette

A window that lists the available video transitions, grouped by type. Used to access transitions to be applied to the Timeline. You can also reorganize and customize the list.
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Transcoding

A term used to describe Standards Conversion between PAL, NTSC and SECAM.
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Transition

A visual effect to segue from the end of one clip or scene and the start of the next. The most basic transition is a cut, in which the last frame of one clip is immediately followed by the first frame of the next clip. More interesting transition effects include fades, dissolves, and wipes between adjacent clips.
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Transperent

Regions of a superimposed image that are invisible, and therefore show through to the underlying image, as used for logo overlays and blue-screen effects. May be defined using a key color or alpha mask. Technically, overlays also can be translucent, and blend portions of the two images. See also opaque.
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Transponder

A combination of a transmitter and a receiver on a satellite. Geostationary satellites that are used for TV program transmissions worldwide have several transponders each, that operate independently. The transponder allows bi-directional communication with earth stations. DTV will use satellite transponders.
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Tri-level Sync

A special sync signal used in HDTV* which improves immunity to noise and interference.
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Trim

To cut out a segment of a clip by removing frames from the beginning and/or end. To adjust the In or Out points of a clip to identify the portion to be used in the final production.
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True Color

A graphics format of various resolution schemes which displays 24 bit or even 32 bit color information (16.7 millions of colors). This format, perfectly suitable for video, displays "true color" on computer and video screens (after appropriate conversion). In order to display "true color", the graphics card of the computer must have enough RAM (at least 1-2 Mbytes) installed, depending on the required resolution.
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TTL (transistor-transistor Logic)

A term used in digital electronics describing the ability of a device or circuit to be connected directly to the input or output of digital equipment. Such compatibility eliminates the need for interfacing circuitry. TTL signals are usually limited to two states, low and high, and are thus much more limited than analog* signals.
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TTL Monitor

A term used for a monitor which accepts TTL* level signals (such as those generated by a computer). TTL monitors differ from analog monitors*, which accept composite or component video signals bearing color, black and white, and sync* information. TTL monitors usually offer very high resolution on the screen but are very limited in the number of colors available at any one time. (See CGA, EGA and VGA). When many colors are required for computer graphics processing, analog signals* are used.
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TVRO

Television Receive Only. A term describing a local or home antenna system.
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Two-t (2t) Pulse

A sine-squared test pulse for video equipment measurement, with its frequency characteristics covering the bandwidth of the signal. The distortion of this pulse created by the video amplifier or processor is measured in "K" units or factor, and should be as close to zero as possible. This test signal easily detects the non-linearity of video devices which results in spurious effects, signal overshoots, ringing etc, due to group delay* effects.
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U, V

Color difference signals for PAL chrominance scaling. They represent a formula related to B-Y and R-Y levels.
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Undercranking

A process based on the film camera technique of recording frames slower than the anticipated playback rate to create “fast-motion”. This process provides unique control of motion images in the camera where motion-blur and other techniques can be incorporated in the process. Panasonic has developed an electronic recording system capable of over/undercrank recording using a process that produces results very much like the film technique, this Panasonic system is known as “VariCam.” Sony has utilized a system where interlaced frames can be interpolated to create progressive frames, creating a look of undercranking.
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Underscan

The opposite of Overscan, where a video or computer image is shrunk on the screen, leaving black borders around it. Underscan is used to scale large images to screen size and to show on the screen what is happening in the blanking period - at the beginning and end of the lines and the frames. By underscanning some latent problems in the image can be seen and identified for correction.
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Upconversion

The process of converting lower resolution video to higher resolution video.
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Up-link

The transmission of a signal to a satellite, or the primary link in a microwave system.
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USB

Universal Serial Bus. An external peripheral interface standard for communication between a computer and external peripherals over a cable using bi-serial transmission.
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Valid Gamut

Describes a video signal where all colors are within the gamut of all the different color spaces that it is expected to be translated into. If a signal contains colors that are within the gamut of its native color space (is legal), but outside the gamut of a color space to which it is being converted to (for example a Y, R-Y, B-Y signal being converted to RGB for display on a monitor), the video may be distorted, folded, clipped or passed depending on how the particular device handles that particular out-of-gamut condition. See Legal Gamut, Gamut, Color Space
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VariCam Format

A Panasonic camcorder system that provides electronic over and under-crank recording of high definition video. The system records 720-progressive video at 60-frames per second. Using a system of frame markers in the Timecode User Bits, Varicam can provide variable frame rate recording so that in-camera motion control is possible in an electronic camcorder. Film camera systems have been able to accomplish over/under crank recording for many years, and is a staple of film cinematography.
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VBR

Acronym for Variable Bit Rate. A compression scheme in which each unit of input material can be compressed to different sizes. For MPEG-2 video, for example, this means that "easier" sequences (that is, with no motion) can compress to very small sizes, whereas "hard" sequences (with lots of motion and scene cuts) can compress to much larger sizes. VBR compression can take better advantage of the overall available bandwidth of a video transmission or DVD player by allocating the available bits intelligently to the difficult parts of a sequence. See also CBR.
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Vectorscope

An electronic test machine for color video systems, for color problem tracing and correction in a TV or video studio. The Vectorscope, like an oscilloscope, displays color vectors and components, as well as the relative position of the Color Burst*. See also Waveform Monitor*.
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Venom FlashPack

A dockable solid-state digital recorder for use with the Thompson Viper and LDK-6000mkII Worldcam cameras Each Flashpack can hold up to 10 minutes of 4:4:4 or "Filmstream" data or 18 minutes of 4:2:2 HD Data.
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Vertical Interval Switching

When one video signal replaces another, the switching process causes a random interruption in the first video signal (in the midst of a frame) and a random entrance into the second video signal (also in the middle of a frame). The result is a visible jump in the edited tape. This situation is amplified when the tape is copied, and the disturbance on playback* is much more serious. To avoid this phenomenon, switching is performed at a very specific point during the vertical blanking retrace period* which is also known as the vertical interval. This allows very smooth replacement of a whole frame by a second whole frame provided that video sources are Genlocked* to each other.
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Vertical Tilt

A field-time distortion which changes the shape of a flat, low frequency video signal and is visible as dark or light bars at the beginning or end of the picture on the screen. Vertical tilt is usually caused by poor low frequency response, mainly of AC coupled circuitry. Vertical tilt in professional application should not exceed 0.5%.
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VESA

Video Electronic Standards Association, a consortium of manufacturers formed to establish and maintain industry wide standards for video cards and monitors. VESA was instrumental in the introduction of the Super VGA and Extended VGA video graphics standards with a refresh rate of 70 Hz, minimizing flicker and helping to reduce user eyestrain and fatigue.
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VGA

A color graphic standard introduced by IBM for personal computers, which displays either high resolution graphics (640 x 480) or 256 colors simultaneously, albeit at low resolution. Due to excellent aspect ratio, which resembles the standard video aspect ratio, VGA is suitable for video recording (after scan conversion* and encoding*).
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VHS

Video Home System. A format developed by JVC(tm) utilizing half-inch tape, which is the most widely used video format.
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VHS-C

A standard VHS system utilizing a compact cassette which, although it has less recording time, is very convenient for camcorders*. Special adapters allow these small cassettes to be used in regular VHS recorders.
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Video Bandwidth

The highest signal frequency that the video signal can reach. The higher the video bandwidth - the better the quality of the picture. A video recorder that can produce a very broad video bandwidth generates a very detailed, high quality picture on the screen. Video bandwidth requirements for studio work may vary from 5 and 200 MHz.
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Video Camera

A camera which contains an electronic image sensing CCD* (Charged Coupled Device) rather than photographic film. The CCD is scanned rapidly converting light rays to an electric signal. A video camera has additional electronic circuitry which generates color* and sync* pulses. Some cameras are equipped with audio circuitry, e.g., microphone, audio amplifier and additional audio electronics. Professional cameras, in order to obtain a better picture, have a triple CCD system (three tubes in the past) - one for each basic color - red, green and blue. Most professional cameras have genlocking* input, which allows the camera to be synchronized to an external source. Some cameras include additional electronic circuitry such as character generators for titling* and special effects*, Tally*, etc.
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Video Controller

Crew member as designated by Local 600, IATSE. Responsible for color timing including but not limited to; adjusting, balancing, registering and setting timing, matching electronic contrast, brightness, quality and edge definition. Matching of cameras, color consistency (RGB), exposure (iris), density (master black), electronic color balance (chroma, hue and saturation), of each camera and its monitor and totally matching camera inputs to the VCU and checking the waveform monitor and the vectorscope. Generally limited to operating within an already functioning, fully operational system. Supervised by the DIT.
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Video Disc

A medium used for recording audio and video information on a disc of the size of a regular LP record. There are several recording methods available. Video picture quality is very high, but lack of re-recording capability limits the use of this system.
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Video Editing

A procedure for combining selected portions of several videotapes, or of the same tape, in order to create a new, edited version. A variety of editing consoles are available which meet several standards, e.g., 1/2 inch, 3/4 inch, etc. During video editing, special effects* such as cross fading*, inserts, 3D effects, etc. can be added. Professional editing uses a special time code, which is printed on every frame of the magnetic tape. This allows for very accurate revision down to the level of a single frame. Very often, audio editing* is carried out simultaneously with video editing. The PAUSE control of a VCR can do simple cut-to-cut editing.
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Video Enhancer

A general term used for a device which corrects problems on videotapes. A narrower definition is a machine which restores high frequency losses on videotapes by enhancing* the high frequency region of the video spectrum. A video enhancer often has controls such as Sharpness, Definition, Detail, etc., which are used for high frequency boosting. Unfortunately, there is a tendency for video enhancers to introduce snow* while adjusting the high frequency region of the spectrum. Only very advanced enhancers avoid this problem.
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Video for Windows

The media file format used with Microsoft Windows (.AVI). Supports many different video and audio compression formats (codecs). See also Windows Media.
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Video Gain

A nominal composite video signal level is usually 1 volt, at which level a fully saturated picture is transmitted to the monitor. However, for cases where the video signal is attenuated, a low-noise*, high-gain amplifier is built into quality video processing equipment. This amplifier provides video gain control whereby the video signal can be boosted or reduced. Dark pictures resulting from low level lighting are easily adjusted. An additional benefit of good video gain equipment is the ability to fade out pictures, for editing purposes.
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Video Mixer

European term for video production switcher.
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Video Motion Detector

A method of detecting movement in the view of the camera by the electronic analysis of the change in picture contrast.
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Video Printer

The video printer is a special device that can grab and create a hard copy print of one video frame on photographic-like paper. A video printer is useful in industrial, medical and military applications. The quality of the print is limited by the quality of the picture on the screen, but for most applications it suffices.
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Video switcher

Device that accepts inputs from a variety of video sources and allows the operator to select a particular source to be sent to the switcher's output(s). May also include circuits for video mixing, wiping, keying, and other special effects.
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Video Wall

A video wall is large screen made up of several monitors, placed close to one another, which, when viewed from some distance look like a large video screen or wall. A digital processor breaks down the original video image into several pieces, by converting the analog video signal to digital, rescanning and resampling it, and generating individual analog video outputs for each monitor. The unit is relatively expensive, and is used, as are wide screen projectors, mainly for public viewing.
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Viper Filmstream

A camera system developed by Thomson that allows for the capture of RGB 22:22:22 10-bit log data directly from the CCD’s. The Viper also features multiple aspect ratios and frame sizes, a mechanical shutter, and multiple frame rate support. The dual link 22:22:22 10-bit log data is transferred over a dual link HD-SDI without any electronic manipulation within the camera. This allows for external recording and full control of the coloring of the raw data at a later time.
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VITC

Vertical Interval Timecode. Pronouced VIT-see. Timecode information that is encoded in the vertical blanking of a video signal. It is primarily used to allow a time code reference to be read when a videotape is slow jog/shuttle or pause mode. See Timecode, LTC
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VOD

Video On Demand. A system which allows a user to select a video movie to be displayed on his TV at any selected time. The requests are transmitted to the center either by an Interactive TV* system via a standard or cable modem, or via a PC and a telephone link. More limited systems are called Near VOD where freedom of choice is more limited. VOD requires a bi-directional CATV (upstream/downstream) system.
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Vodeo effects Palette

A window that lists the available video effects, grouped by type. Used to access effects to be applied to a video clip. You can also reorganize and customize the list.
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VSWR

Variable Standing Wave Ratio. A term used to evaluate and measure impedance matching in high frequency electronic circuitry and transmission media (coax cables etc.), in order to achieve best signal transmission.
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VU

Volume Unit is measured by sound-level meter. VU meters are usually marked from -20 to +5 Vus. O Represents the loudest level before distortion occurs.
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Water,ark

A small, semitransparent graphic that identifies a scene or speaker. Many TV broadcasts use a watermark to let you know what channel you're watching.
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WAV

The uncompressed Wave audio file format used with Microsoft Windows. See also AIFF, MP3, WAV, Windows Media Audio.
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Waveform Monitor

A test machine similar to an oscilloscope designed to show composite or component video waveforms. Every video line may be selected for display and analysis. The waveform monitor helps fine-tune equipment in a video or TV studio and is very useful in locating problems encountered using complex video equipment. See also Vectorscope*.
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Weighted S/n Ratio

The ratio of signal to noise level after mathematical manipulation. The mathematical calculation for audio takes into account the frequency response of human hearing and limitations and for video the human eye and the TV/monitor characteristics. This number is usually higher by a few Decibels than the standard S/N ratio (shows better results).
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White Balance

An electronic process used in video cameras to retain true colors. White balancing is performed prior to recording a specific scene. The camera is pointed at a white object (a wall, for example) and controls on the camera are adjusted until a hairline in the viewfinder is brought to a particular point. This ensures that the tints* in the videotape will be natural. White balance, as simple as it seems, can be problematic. Unnatural colors are the result of incorrect white balance. To correct this situation a chroma corrector* is used to restore white balance and normal tints*. Most modern cameras nowadays perform automatic white balance control which eliminates many color aberration problems.
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White Limiter

A device which electronically limits the maximum "white" level of a video signal, in order to avoid "over-burned" images on the screen.
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Wide Screen Projector

A display device that projects a video or computer image on a large screen, mainly for public viewing. The first wide screen projectors had very poor quality and brightness, but today, quality and brightness is very good. The classic wide screen projector has three color tubes - red green and blue, and the image is created on the screen by blending the three colors. One of the most common problems encountered with wide screen projectors was poor alignment of the three tubes. Nowadays, in most high quality projectors, the alignment required to get a good superimposition of the three images on the screen is almost automatic and much easier than in the past. Recently, LCD* (Liquid Crystal Display) TFT* driven screens, which eliminate alignment problems completely, became the heart of a new series of wide screen projectors. The TFT* based projectors offer better price/performance ratios than three tube projectors. Another new generation of projectors is based on DLP / DMD (Digital Micromirrors Device) technology in which a semiconductor chip is covered with hundreds of thousands of micro mirrors that change their angle to a beam of light shining on them. This system creates an image that is much more saturated and has more contrast.
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widescreen

A wide picture format for film at 9:16 aspect ratio. See also aspect ratio.
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Windows Media

The multimedia platform built into Microsoft Windows, and a series of formats for storing and transmitting video and audio. Uses ASF, WMA, and WMF file types. See also Video for Windows, Windows Media Audio and Windows Media Video.
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Windows Media Audio (WMA)

The Microsoft Windows Media native audio file format. Used for compressing, storing, and organizing CDs and downloaded audio in albums on disk. Also used to download audio to portable audio players. Some consumer audio players and set-top DVD players can play WMA audio files stored on CD-R/RW discs. See also MP3, WAV, Windows Media.
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Windows Media Video (WMV)

The Microsoft Windows Media format for compressed video and audio files on CD and DVD discs. See also Windows Media Audio.
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Wipe

A video transition in which the new video physically moves into the frame while displacing the old video.
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Wiping

A process in which one picture is electronically wiped off the screen and replaced by another. In special effects generators* there are numerous wipe patterns varying from simple horizontal and vertical wipes to multi-shaped, multi-colored arrangements.
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WMF

Windows Metafile Format. A graphics vector file format developed for Microsoft Windows, useful in DTP and graphics application.
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WVHS

An analog High Definition tape format developed by JVC based on the VHS tape transport. WVHS records/plays a 1035/1080i analog high definition signal.
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X

A graphics file format, bitmap based, developed for X Windows, which is a Graphics User Interface for the Unix operating system.
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XLR

A type of connector, usually of 3 pins (4 and 5 pins are also available), used in professional studio applications. The most familiar use of an XLR connector is in audio - where a balanced* audio signal uses two of the three pins, and the third carries the common ground.
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Y, R-Y, B-Y

Terminology to describe the luminance (Y) and color difference signals (R-Y) and (B-Y) of component video. Y is luminance information and the R-Y and B-Y signals together provide the color information. These signals, derived from the original RGB source, are used in most video systems as a bandwidth reduction technique.
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Y/C


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YC

A video system which differs from standard Composite video in several crucial ways. The bandwidth is considerably wider as luminance* and chrominance are separated in the signal. This format, named also Y/C, is widely used for production in semi-professional as well as in many broadcast studios.
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YC (luminance And Chrominance)

A complex division of the video signal used in systems such as S-VHS*. Due to the intricacy of YC, special processors, switchers, amplifiers, etc. are needed for video editing*.
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YUV

Full-color video signal format, consisting of three elements: Y (luminance), and U and V (chrominance). See also RGB.
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